Ampelographic glossary

Term Definition Illustration


Natural direction of shoot growth in the absence of trellising.

Blade – Sinus

Indentations around the blade margin with a clear interruption of serration.


Main part of the leaf, situated at the end of the petiole.


Dull waxy layer covering certain organs (berry, herbaceous shoot).


Group of flower buds which, after fecundation, give rise to a cluster.


Small, brown spots that may occur on various organs (shoot, berry), which are suberised stomata (corky).


Part of the leaf joining the blade to the branch (or shoot).

Shoot – Lateral

Secondary ramification of the shoot from a lateral bud.

Shoot– Internode

Portion of a shoot between two nodes.

Subcontinuous tendrils

Presence of tendrils on at least three successive nodes on the shoot.


Organ which twines and attaches the vine to a neighbouring support.

Young leaves – Color

  • Bronze: brown in colour.
  • Copper: brownish-red in colour
  • Piping anthocyanin coloration: presence of prostate hairs with bright pink to red pigmentation around the edge of the apex or of the young leaves.

Young leaves

3rd to 5th leaves clearly detached or separated from the tip of the shoot.

Adult leaf

Leaf situated on the middle third of the main shoot of the year, best observed between the stages of fruit set and veraison.

Anthocyanin pigmentation

Pink, red or purple colouring that may be related to the youth of the organ or tissue concerned (e.g. young leaf, herbaceous shoot, petiole, vein).

Berry – Aromas

  • Foxy: aroma of berries of the V. labrusca grape variety and most of its hybrids, reminiscent of wild strawberry.
  • Herbaceous: aromas of berries reminiscent of unripe vegetables.
  • Muscat-like: berry aroma with floral (rose) and fruity notes (litchis)

Berry – Seedless

Grape berry with no seeds, or rudimentary seeds which are imperceptible when chewing.

Berry – Teinturier

Term used for varieties with berries that have a colored pulp.

Berry - Shape

Blade – Lateral sinuses

  • Lower lateral sinus: indentation of the blade with clear interruption of serration, located between the 2 primary lateral veins.
  • Upper lateral sinus: indentation of the blade with clear interruption of serration, located between the primary central vein and the adjacent primary lateral vein.
  • Secondary lateral sinuses: indentation of the blade with clear interruption of serration, located between 2 secondary veins.

Blade – Lobe

Portion of the blade situated between 2 sinuses.

Blade – Petiolar sinus

Break in the blade where the petiole is attached.

Degree of opening:

  • Open: the lobes of the sinus flare outwards and do not overlap.
  • Closed: the lobes of the sinus touch (or slightly overlap) one another.
  • Overlapping lobes: the lobes of the sinus clearly overlap.

Shape of the base:

  • U-shaped
  • V-shaped
  • Bracket-shaped  


  • With one tooth on one of the margins
  • Base delimited by the primary lateral vein (“naked”)
  • Petiolar point: point of attachment of the 5 primary veins and the blade on the petiole.

Blade – Profile

Way in which the blade naturally occupies space.

  • Involute: turned or rolled towards the upper surface of the blade.
  • Keeled: like a half-open book.
  • Revolute: blade turned or rolled towards the lower surface of the blade.
  • Crisped: blade profile both involute and revolute in disorganised fashion.

Blade – Relief

  • Blister: micro-relief or bump on the blade between the tertiary and quaternary veins.
  • Goffer: contraction or depression in the surface of the blade between the primary and secondary veins.
  • Smooth: not rough, uniform.
  • Hammered: refers to slight puckering of the blade, flattened in appearance.
  • Undulate: relief between the primary and/or secondary veins running parallel to those veins.

Blade – Shape

  • Cordate: heart-shaped.
  • Cuneate: in the shape of a wedge, or a square or rectangle in juxtaposition with an underlying triangle.
  • Orbicular: rounded (or circular), able to fit into a circle.
  • Pentagonal (or truncate): with five edges, able to fit into a pentagon.
  • Reniform: shaped like a kidney bean or kidney, breadth greater than length.

Blade – Veins

  • Primary veins: the 5 veins departing from the petiolar point.
  • Secondary veins: veins of secondary order flowing directly from the 5 primary veins.
  • Subordinate veins: tertiary and quaternary veins.

Bud scales

Bracts protecting the bud before it opens.


Lignified shoot.

Cluster – Density

Cluster – Pedicel

Stem bearing the berry starting from the point of attachment to the berry to the first ramification of the stalk.

Cluster – Peduncle

Main stalk joining the cluster to the shoot from the point of attachment on the shoot to the first ramification of the stalk.

Cluster – Size

Size, scale (cf. manual).

Cluster – Stem

The pedicels, ramifications and peduncle of the cluster considered as a whole.

Cluster – Wing

Lateral ramification of the main cluster and distinct from it.


Abnormal type of growth of shoots, petioles, tendrils or stalks/stems which appear fused together into bundles and rather flattened.

Flower – Sex

  • Female flower: flower with a functional pistil and non-functional reflex stamens (curving downwards).
  • Hermaphrodite flower: flower with functional pistil and stamens.
  • Male flower: flower with functional stamens but no pistil (or rudimentary, non-functional).

Herbaceous (organ)


Herbaceous shoot

Young branch before lignification.


Study of plant development stages (e.g. bud burst, flowering veraison, ripeness).

  • Bud burst: phenological stage corresponding to the opening of the bud scales, revealing the bud (stage B on Baggiolini scale).
  • Flowering: phenological stage corresponding to the opening and fall of the floral calyptras (stage I on Baggiolini scale).
  • Veraison: phenological stage corresponding to the softening of the berries just before they change colour (stage M on Baggiolini scale).
  • Maturity: phenological stage corresponding to the optimal sugar content produced by photosynthesis with no loss of berry volume, and the deliberately chosen period of harvest (stage N on Baggiolini scale).

Shoot – Node

Swelling of the shoot at the place where the buds, leaf petioles and tendrils or bunches arise.

Shoot – Pith

Non-compact, central tissue of the shoot or branch (or lignified root), more or less abundant and discontinued at the nodes.

Shoot – Relief

  • Striated: shoot presenting fine, longitudinal grooves on its surface.
  • Ribbed: shoot or branch presenting longitudinal ribs or grooves in relief.

Shoot– Sides

  • Dorsal side: side of the shoot situated on the side of the lateral buds and the foliage.
  • Ventral side: side of the shoot situated on the side of the latent buds.


Peripheral endings of veins around the blade margin.

Teeth – Shape

  • Concave: with rounded edges curving towards the interior of the leaf surface.
  • Convex: with rounded edges curving towards the outside (ogival).
  • Straight: with straight edges.
  • Mucronate: the teeth terminate at the apex of the vein, forming a small, clearly visible point.
  • Curly: the teeth are positioned alternately upwards and downwards around the blade margin.

Tip of the young shoot (apex or bud)

End of the young shoot situated above the first detached leaf, best observed at the time of flowering.

  • Open: the very first young leaves grow outwards and the apex of the shoot is entirely visible.
  • Closed or semi-closed: the apex of the shoot is covered or partially covered by the first young leaves.
  • Globular: enveloping, pouch-like character of the first young leaves.


The hairs (or trichomes) covering a surface.

  • Prostate hairs: long, flexuous hairs spread across the surface of the organ on which they occur.
  • Erect hairs: short, colourless, shiny hairs lying perpendicular to the surface of the organ on which they occur.