Sélection Oppenheim 4
Name of variety in France (and usual designation)
Sélection Oppenheim 4 (SO 4)
Breeder/selector and year of obtention
Sigmund Teleki and Heinrich Fuhr, 1896.
Genetic origin
This variety results from the crossbreeding of Vitis berlandieri and Vitis riparia derived from Euryale Rességuier.
Evolution of mother vine surfaces
1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Rank 31 13 6 1 1 2 2 2
ha 0.8 27 363 821 512 339 461 370
Estimated surface area of French vines grafted with the rootstock, and main regions of use
180 000 ha. SO 4 is found in all French wine-growing areas.
Descriptive elements
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot that is half opened, with a piping anthocyanin coloration and a medium density of prostate hairs,
- the bronzed young leaves,
- the elongated shoots, with a ribbed surface, a slightly elliptic section, shiny red nodes and internodes with reddish spots on the ventral side and no erect and prostate hairs,
- the trifid tendrils,
- the large, wedge-shaped, involute, adult leaves, with an undulate leaf blade between the veins, an open U- or V-shaped petiole sinus, teeth with straight sides, a weak anthocyanin coloration of veins, and on the lower side of the leaves, a low to medium density of erect hairs,
- the male flowers,
- the dark brown woody shoots.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 143 234 233 238 200 252 238 214 259
Allel 2 145 263 264 249 214 256 249 235 259
Resistance to soil parasites
SO 4 is highly tolerant to the root form of phylloxera. Its resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria nematodes is also very good. It is moderately tolerant to Meloidogyne hapla nematodes.
Adaptation to the environment
SO 4 resists up to 35% of "total" limestone, 17% of "active" limestone and an ICP of 30. Its resistance to iron chlorosis can thus be considered as moderate. It is well suited to acidic soils and it is fairly tolerant to chlorides. SO 4 resistance to drought is moderate to high but its adaptation to humidity is low to medium. This rootstock is sometimes sensitive to tylosis. SO 4 poorly absorbs magnesium and promotes the dessication of the stems. It is well suited to sandy soils (provided that the magnesium deficiency is corrected), plains terroirs and clay-limestone soils that are moderately or not very fertile. However, it does not seems adapted to very dry terroirs, that induce chlorosis as well as too compact soils.
Interaction with grafts and production objectives
Generally speaking, SO 4 is quite compatible with grafts but the radial trunk growth is very limited. It is said that this rootstock has a “thin leg” which may create substantial diameter differences with the grafts and the recquirement for trellising. The growth speed of plants grafted onto SO 4 is very high and the vigor confered to the grafts by this rootstock is strong, particularly during the first part of the vine’s life (the first 15 years). The varieties grafted onto SO 4 produce high yields, starting from the first years after planting which sometimes requires thinning. SO 4 induces good sugar content in the fruits, the wines obtained often lack body and sometimes have herbaceous notes due to the high yields. SO 4 also promotes wines with high pH levels.
Vegetative propagation aptitudes
SO 4 wood production is very good (60 000 to 100 000 m/ha) with sometimes however a certain proportion of dry canes. It reacts well to fertilization and irrigation but the canes lignify fairly late. This rootstock has very good cutting and grafting capacities, and is easy to clean and disbud. Its internodes have a medium size diameter and the growth of lateral shoot buds is limited. When performed, hormoning should be moderate and the duration of stratification may sometimes be longer.
Resistance to aerial parasites
SO 4 is not very or moderately sensitive to the gall form of phylloxera and anthracnose and is highly resistant to downy mildew.
Clonal selection in France
In France, the 24 certified SO 4 clones carry the numbers 5, 15, 18, 20, 72, 73, 74, 102, 103, 104, 106, 156, 157, 158, 159, 161, 165, 166, 174, 203, 204, 205, 761 and 762. Among those, the clones multiplied are:
- clone No. 5: 47 ha 25 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 18: 5 ha 15 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 20: 1 ha 60 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 72: 1 ha 27 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 73: 65 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 74: 82 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 102: 46 ha 33 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 104: 50 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 157: 84 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 161: 50 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 203: 22 ha 07 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 204: 89 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 205: 62 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 762: 226 ha 16 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017.

Datas are extracted from: Les chiffres de la pépinière viticole, 2017, Datas and assesment of FranceAgriMer, may 2018.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Cépages et vignobles de France, tome 1. P. Galet, 1988, Ed. Dehan, Montpellier, France.