99 Richter
Name of variety in France (and usual designation)
99 Richter (99 R)
Breeder/selector and year of obtention
Franz Richter, 1902.
Genetic origin
This variety results from the crossbreeding between Vitis berlandieri cv. Las Sorres and Vitis rupestris cv. Lot.
Evolution of mother vine surfaces
1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Rank 7 6 4 10 15 23 22 27
ha 55 223 430 179 26 3 3 0.04
Estimated surface area of French vines grafted with the rootstock, and main regions of use
5 000 ha. Languedoc-Roussillon, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Rhône-Alpes, Corsica.
Descriptive elements
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot that is half open, with a low density of prostate hairs,
- the red young leaves,
- the shoots with a bushy and erect bearing, a ribbed surface, a circular or slightly elliptic section, a strong anthocyanin coloration, and no erect and prostate hairs,
- the small, kidney-shaped, dissymetric, light green, mate, entire adult leaves, with an involute and twisted leaf blade, an open V-shaped petiole sinus, a strong nathocyanin coloration of veins, teeth with straigh sides, and on the lower side of the leaves, no or a very low density of erect and prostate hairs,
- the male flowers,
- the browny grey woody shoots, with a striated surface.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 135 234 231 236 196 252 236 218 259
Allel 2 147 234 260 246 210 264 246 235 259
Resistance to soil parasites
99 R is highly tolerant to the root form of phylloxera. Its resistance to Meloidogyne hapla nematodes is good but is only average regarding to Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria nematodes.
Adaptation to the environment
99 R resists up to 25% of "total" limestone, 14% of "active" limestone and an ICP of 20. Its resistance to drought is moderate to high. It seems to be sensitive to soil acidity and chloride excess.
Interaction with grafts and production objectives
99 R has a good affinity to grafts. This rootstock confers a high vigor to the grafts. It tends to delay the growth cycle of the grafts and sometimes promotes coulure. The first plant development is rather slow. In addition, the risk of degeneration is increased with Syrah.
Vegetative propagation aptitudes
The length of the internodes is average and the diameter is medium to large. The growth of lateral shoot buds is widespread. 99 R wood production is moderate (30 000 to 40 000 m/ha) and has moderate cuttings rooting and grafting capacities.
Resistance to aerial parasites
This rootstock is very sensitive to the gall form of phylloxera. It is also sensitive to anthracnose but is highly resistant to downy mildew.
Clonal selection in France
In France, the 7 certified 99 R clones carry the numbers 96, 150, 162, 178, 179, 223 and 754.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Cépages et vignobles de France, tome 1. P. Galet, 1988, Ed. Dehan, Montpellier, France.