44-53 Malègue
Name of variety in France (and usual designation)
44-53 Malègue (44-53 M)
Breeder/selector and year of obtention
Victor Malègue, 1900.
Genetic origin
This variety results from the crossbreeding of Vitis riparia cv. Grand glabre and 144 Malègue (Vitis cordifolia - Vitis rupestris).
Evolution of mother vine surfaces
1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Rank 19 8 9 11 21 21 22 22
ha 4 165 174 76 14 4 3 1.7
Estimated surface area of French vines grafted with the rootstock, and main regions of use
2 000 ha. Languedoc-Roussillon Rhône-Alpes, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Midi-Pyrénées.
Descriptive elements
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot that is closed, with a low density of erect hairs and no prostrate hairs,
- the slightly bronzed young leaves,
- the green shoots with an elliptic to circular section, no erect and prostrate hairs,
- the small to medium, cordate, entire adult leaves, with an elongated main lobe, an open U-shaped petiole sinus, a smooth, shiny, involute, spoon-shaped leaf blade, a weak anthocyanin coloration of veins, teeth with straight sides, and on the lower side of the leaves, a low density of erect hairs and no prostrate hairs,
- the male flowers,
- the brown woody shoots, with no erect and prostrate hairs .
Genetic profile
Allel 1 137 250 233 238 174 258 238 227 249
Allel 2 143 261 239 242 178 262 242 251 249
Resistance to soil parasites
44-53 M is highly tolerant to the root form of phylloxera. It is however moderately resistant to Meloidogyne arenaria nematodes and is susceptible to Meloidogyne incognita nematodes.
Adaptation to the environment
The tolerance of 44-53 M to chlorosis is low to moderate. It only resists up to 15% of "total" limestone, 10% of "active" limestone and an ICP of 10, but it is well adapted to drought. In terms of mineral input, 44-53 M does not absorb magnesium easily and it promotes the development of magnesium deficiency symptoms. 44-53 M is well adapted to fairly deep, hard limestone soils, that do not induce too much chlorosis.
Interaction with grafts and production objectives
44-53 M has a good affinity with grafts and the plants development speed is moderate. It confers a low to moderate vigor and a balanced vegetative growth. The varieties grafted onto 44-53 M usually produce good quality fruits. This rootstock works well with Grenache and Gamay.
Vegetative propagation aptitudes
44-53 M wood production is moderate (30 000 to 50 000 m/ha) and the canes easily lignify. This rootstock also shows good cuttings rooting and grafting capacities.
Resistance to aerial parasites
This rootstock is not very susceptible to the gall form of phylloxera and is very highly resistant to downy mildew.
Clonal selection in France
In France, the 4 certified 44-53 M clones carry the numbers 120, 755, 1104 and 1161. Among those, the clone 120 is multiplied on 1 ha and 60 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017.

Datas are extracted from: Les chiffres de la pépinière viticole, 2017, Datas and assesment of FranceAgriMer, may 2018.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Cépages et vignobles de France, tome 1. P. Galet, 1988, Ed. Dehan, Montpellier, France.