4010 Castel
Name of variety in France (and usual designation)
4010 Castel (4010 Cl)
Breeder/selector and year of obtention
Pierre Castel, 1906.
Genetic origin
This variety results from the crossbreeding of Vitis riparia cv. Grand glabre and Aramon Rupestris Ganzin number 1.
Evolution of mother vine surfaces
1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Rank 21 24 23 23 23 24 24
ha 1 1 2 2 1 0.5 0.5
Estimated surface area of French vines grafted with the rootstock, and main regions of use
600 ha. Aquitaine.
Descriptive elements
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot that is half open, with no or a very low density of prostrate hairs,
- the bronzed young leaves
- the shoots with a smooth surface and a moderate to strong anthocyanin coloration,
- the involute, kidney-shaped adult leaves, with an open brace-shaped petiole sinus,
- the male flowers,
- the browny red to purplish woody shoots with no erect and prostrate hairs.
Genetic profile
Allel 1 135 232 243 236 188 256 236 235 249
Allel 2 159 261 251 236 190 256 236 243 249
Resistance to soil parasites
The tolerance of 4010 Cl to the root form of phylloxera is moderate. It must therefore be planted under unfavorable conditions for this pest, but its resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria and Meloidogyne incognita nematodes is good.
Adaptation to the environment
4010 Cl tolerance towards chlorosis is low and it only resists up to 6% of "active" limestone. This rootstock poorly absorbs magnesium. It is adapted to acidic soils, with very little or no limestone, rather deep, that can be compact but with a sufficient water input.
Interaction with grafts and production objectives
4010 Cl gives a fairly high vigor to the grafts and tends to favor their fertility. However, it also favors the earliness of the vegetative growing cycles.
Vegetative propagation aptitudes
4010 Cl wood production is moderate (30 000 to 40 000 m/ha) but has good cutting and grafting capacities.
Resistance to aerial parasites
4010 Cl tolerance to the gall form of phylloxera is moderate and its resistance to downy mildew is also moderate.
Clonal selection in France
In France, the 2 certified 4010 Cl clones carry the numbers 243 and 244. The clone 243 is multiplied on 50 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017.

Datas are extracted from: Les chiffres de la pépinière viticole, 2017, Datas and assesment of FranceAgriMer, may 2018.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Cépages et vignobles de France, tome 1. P. Galet, 1988, Ed. Dehan, Montpellier, France.