333 Ecole de Montpellier
Name of variety in France (and usual designation)
333 Ecole de Montpellier (333 EM)
Breeder/selector and year of obtention
Gustave Foëx, 1883.
Genetic origin
This variety results from the crossbreeding of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon and Vitis berlandieri.
Evolution of mother vine surfaces
1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Rank 28 15 16 16 20 18 18 15
ha 2 7 15 43 18 12 8 21
Estimated surface area of French vines grafted with the rootstock, and main regions of use
4 000 ha. Champagne, Charentes.
Descriptive elements
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot that is open, with a piping anthocyanin coloration and a high density of prostrate hairs,  
- the reddish young leaves,
- the shoots with a very ribbed surface, a circular or slightly elliptic section and no erect and prostrate hairs, 
- the circular adult leaves, entire or with five lobes, with shiny blistered leaf blade, involute and twisted on the edges, a brace-shaped slightly open petiole sinus or with slightly overlapping lobes and with often limited naked petiole veins,
- the male flowers,
- the woody shoots with a very ribbed surface.
Genetic profile
Allel 1 137 217 231 238 194 248 238 235 239
Allel 2 147 229 239 250 220 260 250 235 257
Resistance to soil parasites
333 EM is moderately to highly tolerant to the root form of phylloxera. It is sensitive to Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria nematodes.
Adaptation to the environment
333 EM is characterized by its very good adaptation to limestone soils and its resistance to chlorosis. In deed, it resists up to 60% of "total" limestone, 40% of "active" limestone and an ICP of 70. This rootstock is also well adapted to drought and to temporary water excess during the spring. On the other hand, it is sensitive to chlorides. 333 EM is well adapted to shallow, dry and limestone soils.
Interaction with grafts and production objectives
333 EM gives a high vigor to grafts and provides fairly high yields. It can however sometimes promote coulure phenomenon. The first development of plants is fairly slow with this rootstock. Under not very fertile or limiting conditions, the varieties grafted onto 333 EM produces good quality products.
Vegetative propagation aptitudes
333 EM wood production is very low (10 000 to 30 000 m/ha) and autumn climatic conditions must be favorable in order to get a proper lignification of canes. 333 EM has a moderate cutting capacity and a good grafting aptitude, but the large cane diameter may be bothersome.
Resistance to aerial parasites
333 EM is highly tolerant to the gall form of phylloxera and moderately resistant to downy mildew. On the other hand, it is very sensitive to bud mite disease.
Clonal selection in France
In France, the 4 certified 333 EM clones carry the numbers 260, 263, 1049 and 1105. Among those, the clone 263 is multiplied on 20 ha 53 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017.

Datas are extracted from: Les chiffres de la pépinière viticole, 2017, Datas and assesment of FranceAgriMer, may 2018.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Cépages et vignobles de France, tome 1. P. Galet, 1988, Ed. Dehan, Montpellier, France.