216-3 Castel
Name of variety in France (and usual designation)
216-3 Castel (216-3 Cl)
Breeder/selector and year of obtention
Pierre Castel, 1906.
Genetic origin
This variety results from the crossbreeding of 1616 Couderc and Vitis rupestris cv. Lot.
Evolution of mother vine surfaces
1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Rank 21 16 21 28 28 26 26 26
ha 4 6 5 0.3 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.06
Estimated surface area of French vines grafted with the rootstock, and main regions of use
35 ha.
Descriptive elements
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot that is half open, with a low density of prostrate hairs,
- the shoots with a moderate anthocyanin coloration,
- the thin tendrils,
- the involute, kidney-shaped adult leaves, with an open petiole sinus, teeth with a slightly convex side and a slightly concave side,
- the male flowers.
Genetic profile
Allel 1 135 234 251 236 190 256 236 218 234
Allel 2 139 265 260 238 196 264 238 241 243
Resistance to soil parasites
216-3 Cl is highly tolerant to the root form of phylloxera, it is susceptible to Meloidogyne arenaria and Meloidogyne incognita nematodes.
Adaptation to the environment
216-3 Cl only resists up to 10% of "active" limestone. It is fairly well adapted to drought and is slightly tolerant to chlorides.
Interaction with grafts and production objectives
216-3 Cl gives a high vigor to the grafts.
Vegetative propagation aptitudes
216-3 C wood production is low (25 000 to 35 000 m/ha). This rootstock has a moderate cutting capacity and a low grafting aptitude.
Resistance to aerial parasites
216-3 Cl tolerance to the gall form of phylloxera is good and it is fairly resistant to downy mildew.
Clonal selection in France
In France, the only certified 216-3 Cl clone carries the number 115.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Cépages et vignobles de France, tome 1. P. Galet, 1988, Ed. Dehan, Montpellier, France.