196-17 Castel
Name of variety in France (and usual designation)
196-17 Castel (196-17 Cl)
Breeder/selector and year of obtention
Pierre Castel, 1906.
Genetic origin
This variety results from the crossbreeding of 1203 Couderc (Vitis vinifera - Vitis rupestris) and Vitis riparia cv. Gloire de Montpellier.
Evolution of mother vine surfaces
1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Rank 24 17 17 19 19 19 17 20
ha 3 3 13 23 16 9 9 3.5
Estimated surface area of French vines grafted with the rootstock, and main regions of use
1 500 ha. Languedoc-Roussillon.
Descriptive elements
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot that is half open, with no or a very low density of prostrate hairs,
- the shoots with a smooth surface and a moderate to strong anthocyanin coloration,
- the circular, involute, funnel-shaped adult leaves, with a slightly open or closed petiole sinus, an undulate leaf blade between the veins, large teeth with straight sides,
- the male flowers,
- the browny red or purplish woody shoots with no erect and prostrate hairs.
Genetic profile
Allel 1 131 263 249 238 188 256 238 214 239
Allel 2 143 263 264 240 200 262 240 243 239
Resistance to soil parasites
196-17 Cl is moderately tolerant to the root form of phylloxera and it is best to plant it under unfavorable conditions for this pest. It is aldo sensitive to Meloidogyne arenaria and Meloidogyne incognita nematodes.
Adaptation to the environment
196-17 Cl is sensitive to chlorosis and only resists up to 6% of "active" limestone and to an IPC of 5. It is well adapted to drought and acidic soils. 196-17 Cl is particularly suited to schist or granitic, dry, poor, superficial and stony soils along to sandy soils if there is no endoparasitic nematodes. This rootstock is also slightly tolerant to chlorides.
Interaction with grafts and production objectives
196-17 Cl gives a significant vigor to the graft and can be used to replace missing plants.
Vegetative propagation aptitudes
196-17 Cl has a moderate wood production (30 000 to 60 000 m/ha) but has good cutting and grafting capacities.
Resistance to aerial parasites
196-17 Cl is tolerant the gall form phylloxera is good and it is moderately resistant to downy mildew.
Clonal selection in France
In France, the only certified 196-17 Cl clone carries the number 99 and it is multiplied on 3 ha 63 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017.

Datas are extracted from: Les chiffres de la pépinière viticole, 2017, Datas and assesment of FranceAgriMer, may 2018.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Cépages et vignobles de France, tome 1. P. Galet, 1988, Ed. Dehan, Montpellier, France.