140 Ruggeri
Name of variety in France (and usual designation)
140 Ruggeri (140 Ru)
Breeder/selector and year of obtention
Antonino Ruggeri, 1894.
Genetic origin
This variety results from the crossbreeding of Vitis berlandieri cv. Rességuier number 2 and Vitis rupestris cv. Lot.
Evolution of mother vine surfaces
1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Rank 13 7 5 5 4 5
ha 56 273 287 189 221 153
Estimated surface area of French vines grafted with the rootstock, and main regions of use
50 000 ha. Languedoc-Roussillon, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Rhône-Alpes, Corsica, Charentes.
Descriptive elements
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot that is half openend, with a low density of prostate hairs,
- the shiny, slightly bronzed young leaves,
- the shoots with a horizontal bearing, a ribbed surface, a circular or slightly elliptic section, and no erect and prostate hairs,
- the medium, kidney-shaped, slightly involute, entire, shiny adult leaves, with a widely open brace-shaped petiole sinus, a weak anthocyanin coloration of veins, medium size teeth with convex sides, a smooth leaf blade, slightly undulate between the veins, and on the lower side of the leaves, no or a very low density of erect and prostate hairs,
- the male flowers.
Genetic profile
Allel 1 135 244 231 236 196 244 236 233 251
Allel 2 141 265 257 262 214 260 262 241 251
Resistance to soil parasites
140 Ru is very highly tolerant to the root form of phylloxera. This root stock resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria nematodes is high but is only average regarding to Meloidogyne incognita nematodes.
Adaptation to the environment
140 Ru is characterized by its good adaptation to limestone soils and its high drought resistance. It resists up to 50% of "total" limestone, 20% of "active" limestone and an ICP of 90. 140 Ru absorbs well magnesium and is essentially suited to dry, poor, superficial and stony limestone soils.
Interaction with grafts and production objectives
140 Ru confers a very high vigor. This rootstock induces a strong plant development and tends to delay the growth cycle. Associations with very vigorous varieties, such as Grenache, Sauvignon, Sultanine, Ugni blanc and especially Mourvèdre, should be kept for exceptional situations. Associations with these varieties and with others like Caladoc, Carignan, Marselan, Négrette, Tempranillo and Syrah, may cause issues due to the development of large calluses and bulging at the graft union or bad joining at the graft point. The plants concerned redden during the autumn for black varieties and turn yellow for white varieties, due to poor vascularization between the rootstock and the scion. They sometimes need to be replaced in young plantations.
Vegetative propagation aptitudes
The length of 140 Ru internodes is moderate, with a fairly large diameter. The growth of lateral shoot buds is moderate and the wood production is low to medium (25 0000 to 60 000 m/ha). Care needs to be taken to make sure that the canes are properly lignified, and then, the canes must be preserved under the right conditions. 140 Ru has a low cuttings rooting capacity and a moderate grafting aptitude as the joining areas are weak and often too big. A special care must be paid during the stratification phase (duration, hormoning) in order to avoid the formation of large calluses.
Resistance to aerial parasites
140 Ru is sensitive to the gall form of phylloxera but is highly resistant to downy mildew and is not very affected by anthracnose.
Clonal selection in France
In France, the 10 certified 140 Ru clones carry the numbers 101, 200, 216, 217, 227, 229, 230, 265, 765 and 766. Among those, the clones multiplied are:
- clone No. 101: 29 ha 08 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 217: 70 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 230: 1 ha 44 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 265: 122 ha 55 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 765: 2 ha 80 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017.

Datas are extracted from: Les chiffres de la pépinière viticole, 2017, Datas and assesment of FranceAgriMer, may 2018.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Cépages et vignobles de France, tome 1. P. Galet, 1988, Ed. Dehan, Montpellier, France.