110 Richter
Name of variety in France (and usual designation)
110 Richter (110 R)
Breeder/selector and year of obtention
Franz Richter, 1902.
Genetic origin
This variety results from the crossbreeding between Vitis berlandieri cv. Rességuier n°2 and Vitis rupestris cv. Martin.
Evolution of mother vine surfaces
1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Rank 10 9 8 3 3 1 1 1
ha 16 108 254 526 376 352 522 377
Estimated surface area of French vines grafted with the rootstock, and main regions of use
130 000 ha. Languedoc-Roussillon, Midi-Pyrénées, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Rhône-Alpes, Corsica.
Descriptive elements
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot that is half opened, with a low density of prostate hairs,
- the shiny and reddish young leaves,
- the shoots with a bushy and erect bearing, a ribbed contour, a circular or slightly elliptic section, a striated surface, a moderate to strong anthocyanin coloration and no erect and prostate hairs,
- the small to medium, kidney-shaped, shiny, entire adult leaves, with a widely open U-shaped petiole sinus, a strong anthocyanin coloration of veins, medium teeth with straight sides, a slightly blistered leaf blade, gutter-folded towards the upper side of the blade, and on the lower side of the leaves, no or a very low density of erect and prostate hairs,
- the male flowers,
- the browny grey or browny red woody shoots, with no erect and prostate hairs.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 135 232 231 236 196 244 236 218 253
Allel 2 141 265 257 262 214 260 262 233 253
Resistance to soil parasites
110 R is very highly tolerant to the root form of phylloxera, but its resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria nematodes is only average. It would also be quite resistant to Phytophtora cinnamomi.
Adaptation to the environment
110 R is moderately adapted to limestone and its resistance to iron chlorosis is variable depending on the grafts used. It is can resist up to 17% of "active" limestone and to an IPC of 30. However the threshold is actually only 5 to 7% when Syrah is grafted onto 110 R (and to a lesser extent with Viognier). This rootstock is very well adapted to drought but is very sensitive to water excess. It is particularly adapted to dry, poor, stony, with no or very little limestone soils, such as schist soils or ancient terraces.
Interaction with grafts and production objectives
110 R confers a strong vigor. This rootstock tends to induce a good fertility and delay the growth cycle and the maturation. It can sometimes favor coulure, particularly with Ugni blanc. 110 R works very well with Cabernet-Sauvignon, Caladoc, Carignan, Grenache, Marselan, Mourvèdre, Muscat à petits grains blancs, Muscat d’Alexandrie, Tempranillo and Vermentino. On the other hand, given the risk of chlorosis, the association with Syrah must be avoided when the "active" limestone content goes over 5%, since the risk of declining is incresed with this association. Cases of incomptability have also been noticed with Pinot.
Vegetative propagation aptitudes
The length of 110 R is medium with a fairly large diameter. The growth of lateral shoot buds is fairly high and the wood production is low to moderate (30 000 to 60 000 m/ha) with sometimes a certain proportion of dry canes. Care needs to be taken to make sure that the canes are properly lignified, and then, the canes must be preserved under the right conditions. In mother plantations, 110 R is sensitive to excess humidity in the soil. This rootsotck has a low to moderate cuttings rooting capacity and a moderate grafting aptitude. This root stock sometimes requires a longer stratification period and a possibly slightly more substantial hormoning.
Resistance to aerial parasites
110 R is very sensitive to the gall form of phylloxera but is highly resistant to downy mildew and is not very affected by anthracnose.
Clonal selection in France
In France, the 15 certified 110 R clones carry the numbers 6, 7, 100, 118, 119, 139, 140, 151, 152, 163, 164, 180, 206, 237 and 756. Among those, the clones multiplied are:
- clone No. 6: 2 ha 54 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 7: 17 ha 56 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 118: 6 ha 17 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 139: 1 ha 44 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 140: 1 ha 70 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 151: 115 ha 71 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 152: 60 ha 32 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 164: 1 ha 45 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 180: 43 ha 63 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 237: 92 ha 57 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 756: 39 ha 31 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017.

Datas are extracted from: Les chiffres de la pépinière viticole, 2017, Datas and assesment of FranceAgriMer, may 2018.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Cépages et vignobles de France, tome 1. P. Galet, 1988, Ed. Dehan, Montpellier, France.