Syrah N
Name of the variety in France
Syrah
Origin
This variety is seemingly originally from the northern Côtes du Rhône or the Dauphiné region. Based on published genetic analyses, it would be the result of crossbreeding between Mondeuse blanche and Dureza.
Synonyms
In France, this variety can officially be called "Shiraz" or "Serine" regarding plant propagation material. Syrah is officially designated as "Shiraz" in Cyprus, Germany, Italy and Malta.
Legal information
En France, la Syrah is officially listed in the "Catalogue of vine varieties" on the A list and classified. This variety is also listed in the catalogues of other Member States of the European Union: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain.
Use
Wine grape variety.
Evolution of cultivated areas in France
1958 1968 1979 1988 1998 2008 2018
ha 1602 2658 12282 27041 44823 67834 65772
Descriptive elements
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot with a high density of prostate hairs,
- the green young leaves,
- the shoots with a ribbed surface and long green internodes,
- the adult leaves with five lobes, open lateral sinuses, an open petiole sinus with sometimes naked petiole veins, short to medium teeth with convex sides, no anthocyanin coloration of veins, a sometimes goffered leaf blade, and on the lower side of the leaves, a low to medium density of prostate hairs,
- the ellipsoid berries.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 131 223 239 186 188 246 240 216 239
Allel 2 131 229 239 188 194 252 240 227 271
Phenology
Bud burst: 7 days after Chasselas.
Grape maturity: mid-season, 2 weeks and a half after Chasselas.
Suitability for cultivation and agronomic production
This variety produces long shoots that are fragile to the wind in spring and must be carefully trellised. In most cases, short pruning is sufficient in southern zones. Syrah is sensitive to chlorosis, poorly adapted to soils with high active limestone content. Then, grafting onto 110 R must absolutely be avoided. This variety ripens quickly, resulting in a relatively short véraison-ripeness period. The optimum harvest period is short and is evaluated not only by considering sugar and acidity concentrations, but also by the weight of the berries, bunches and berry analysis, and berry tasting.
Susceptibility to diseases and pests
Syrah is not very susceptible to downy mildew but is rather sensitive to mites and grey rot, especially at the end of the ripening period. This variety has a specific decline behavior, characterized by leaf reddening combined with at the grafting point, which can in the long term cause the vine trunks to die. To date, the causes remain unknown and no disease causative agent have been identified, but significant behavioral differences between clones have been noted.
Technological potentiality
The bunches are small to medium in size and the berries are small. Syrah can produce great quality red wines with a fairly high alcohol degree, that are suited to ageing. This variety gives very aromatic, fine, tannic, robust, complex (spices, violet, olive, leather-animal, etc) wines with relatively low acidity (pH is sometimes rather high, particularly on schist soils), which tend to have an intense (blue-toned) color. Syrah also produces very fruity and interesting rosé wines.
Clonal selection in France
The seven certified Syrah clones carry the numbers 470, 471, 524, 747, 1140, 1141 and 1188. A conservatory of more than 600 clones was planted in 1995 in the French department of Drôme. An additional conservatory of 50 or so clones was planted in 2002 in the French department of Rhône.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages et de leurs synonymes. P. Galet, 2015, Ed. Libre&Solidaire, France.
- Traité général de viticulture, Ampélographie. P. Viala and V. Vermorel, 1901-1909, Ed. Masson, Paris, France.
Description of clones certified in France
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technological data Autres informations
Clone no. Marque Origin Selection Year of
certification
Agronomic
references
Surface area used
for propagation (year)
Fertility Production
level
Bunch
weight
Vigor Berry
size
Susceptibility
to grey rot
Sugar
level
Color
potential
Titrable
acidity
Tannic
structure
Aromatic
intensity
Oenological
suitability
New General
note
Agro-tecnic
note
Note
agronomique
Agronomic
note
Links
470 Tarn-et-Garonne ENTAV 1976 Côtes-du-Rhône
Languedoc
Provence
18.83 ha very low low low high medium low high high medium to high high aromatic, concentrated wines with a good tannic structure clone showing very few symptoms of decline. Low level of production especially under limiting circumstances. High vigor and drooping bearing. Not very compact bunches. Clone appreciated for the configuration of its bunches, its low production potential, the color and the quality of the wines obtained.
471 Drôme ENTAV 1976 Côtes-du-Rhône
Languedoc
Provence
12.64 ha medium to high medium to high medium high medium medium medium to high medium to high medium medium to high round wines with good tannic structure on the palate clone generally showing very few symptoms of decline. Less compact clusters. Good maturity despite the production level.
524 Drôme ENTAV 1976 Côtes-du-Rhône
Languedoc
Provence
7.37 ha high high high medium to high medium medium medium representative wines of the variety clone showing very few symptoms of decline. Less compact clusters.
747 Tarn-et-Garonne ENTAV 1981 Côtes-du-Rhône
Languedoc
Sud-Ouest
16.57 ha medium to high high medium to high high low to medium low to medium medium low to medium representative wines of the variety clone showing very few symptoms of decline
1140 Drôme CA26 - IFV 2012 Côtes-du-Rhône medium to high low to medium low medium low low to medium high medium to high medium high wines appreciated for their olfactory quality and the balance on the palate clone showing very few symptoms of decline. Appreciated for the quality of the wines obtained.
1141 Rhône CA26 - IFV 2012 Côtes-du-Rhône low to medium low low medium low low to medium high medium to high medium high wines appreciated for their olfactory quality and the balance on the palate clone showing very few symptoms of decline. Appreciated for the quality of the wines obtained.
1188 Rhône CA26 - IFV 2012 Côtes-du-Rhône high medium low medium low low to medium high medium to high medium high Wines appreciated for their olfactory quality and the balance on the palate. clone showing very few symptoms of decline. Appreciated for the quality of the wines obtained.