Pinot noir N
Name of the variety in France
Pinot noir
Origin
This variety is originally from Burgundy.
Synonyms
In the European Union, Pinot noir is officially called by other names: Blauer Burgunder (Austria), Blauer Spätburgunder (Germany), Modri pinot (Slovenia), Pinot Nero (Italy), Pinot crni (Croatia) and Rulandské modré (Czech republic, Slovakia). These synonyms are officially recognized in France regarding plant propagation material.
Legal information
In France, Pinot noir is officially listed in the "Catalogue of vine varieties" on the A list and classified. This variety is also listed in the catalogues of otherMember States of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.
Use
Wine grape variety.
Evolution of cultivated areas in France
1958 1968 1979 1988 1998 2008 2018
ha 8535 11876 17210 21971 25871 28006 36727
Descriptive elements
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot with a medium to high density of prostate hairs,
- the green or yellow young leaves,
- the shoots with red-striped internodes,
- the dark or very dark green adult leaves, entire or with three or five lobes, with a slightly open or closed petiole sinus, with lobes facing each other towards the lower side of the blade in a coxcomb shape, short teeth, a twisted, strongly blistered leaf blade, and on the lower side of the leaves, a low density of prostate hairs,
- the round-shaped or slightly ellipsoid berries.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 135 225 239 182 188 240 238 216 239
Allel 2 149 236 243 186 194 246 248 235 271
Phenology
Bud burst: 2 days after Chasselas.
Grape maturity: early-season, half a week to 1 week after Chasselas
Suitability for cultivation and agronomic production
Pinot noir is particularly adapted to temperate climate zones. This variety gives best results in clay-limestone terroirs. In hot climates, grape maturation is very fast. It is sensitive to heat and the berries tend to shrivel quickly when over ripe. Pinot noir is generally trained. It expresses its fulfilment when its vigor is low to moderate and yields are limited. This variety, which requires careful debudding tends to produce a large number of grappillons.
Susceptibility to diseases and pests
Pinot noir is a delicate variety, sensitive to the main diseases, particularly downy mildew, rotbrenner, grey rot (on clusters and leaves), and vine leafhoppers.
Technological potentiality
The bunches and berries are very small to small in size. Pinot noir, under favorable conditions, can produce extremely high quality red wines, combining finesse, intensity and aromatic complexity, that are suited for ageing. The sugar accumulation potential is high for a moderate acidity (sometimes insufficient when ripe) and a color which is often not very intense, but can be maintained over time. Pinot noir also makes quality base wines for the production of sparkling wines.
Clonal selection in France
The 47 certified Pinot noir clones carry the numbers 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 162, 163, 164, 165, 236, 292, 372, 373, 374, 375, 386, 388, 389, 459, 460, 461, 462, 521, 528, 583, 617, 665, 666, 667, 668, 743, 777, 778, 779, 780, 792, 828, 829, 870, 871, 872, 927, 943, 1184, 1185, 1196 and 1197. Conservatories-collections, planted in Alsace, Burgundy (Côte d’Or and Saône-et-Loire) and in Champagne between 1971 and 1995, gather almost 800 clones.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages et de leurs synonymes. P. Galet, 2015, Ed. Libre&Solidaire, France.
- Traité général de viticulture, Ampélographie. P. Viala and V. Vermorel, 1901-1909, Ed. Masson, Paris, France.
Description of clones certified in France
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technological data Autres informations
Clone no. Marque Origin Selection Year of
certification
Agronomic
references
Surface area used
for propagation (year)
Fertility Production
level
Bunch
weight
Vigor Berry
size
Susceptibility
to grey rot
Sugar
level
Color
potential
Titrable
acidity
Tannic
structure
Aromatic
intensity
Oenological
suitability
New General
note
Agro-tecnic
note
Note
agronomique
Agronomic
note
Links
111 Côte-d'Or INRA 1971 Burgundy medium medium medium medium to high medium wines with a fairly tannic structure irregular production. Clone a little more susceptible to grey rot.
112 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1971 Clone not widely distributed.
113 Côte-d'Or INRA 1971 Burgundy 1.42 ha medium medium medium medium balanced wines with not very noticeable tannins production level sometimes irregular
114 Côte-d'Or INRA 1971 Burgundy 1.81 ha medium low to medium low to medium medium medium to high medium to high medium medium aromatic, typical and fairly tannic wines clone sometimes irregular but bringing an interesting qualitative potential in blends
115 Côte-d'Or INRA 1971 Burgundy
Languedoc
12.64 ha low to medium low to medium low to medium medium medium to high medium low to medium medium to high typical, complex wines with a good tannic structure clone appreciated for its regularity of production, its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained. Good aptitude for the production of wines suitable for ageing.
162 Alsace INRA 1972 Alsace 0.98 ha medium medium low to medium medium suitable for the production of light red wines or rosé wines
163 Côte-d'Or INRA 1972 Clone not widely distributed.
164 Côte-d'Or INRA 1972 Clone not widely distributed.
165 Côte-d'Or INRA 1972 Burgundy 0.39 ha medium medium medium medium representative wines of the variety
236 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1973 Burgundy
Champagne
3.51 ha high high medium to high medium medium to high low low to medium high low to medium recommended for the production of sparkling wines clone considered «fairly typical» in Champagne
292 Jura ENTAV 1973 Burgundy
Champagne
3.96 ha medium to high high high low to medium not very full-bodied red wines can be used for the production of sparkling wines but is considered as "not very typical" in Champagne
372 Jura ENTAV 1975 Clone not widely distributed.
373 Jura ENTAV 1975 Clone not widely distributed.
374 Jura ENTAV 1975 Clone not widely distributed.
375 Saône-et-Loire ENTAV 1975 Burgundy
Champagne
Languedoc
3.92 ha medium to high high medium to high medium medium low to medium low to medium medium supple and fruity red wines yield must be managed. Can be used for the production of sparkling wines
386 Marne ENTAV 1975 Burgundy
Champagne
Languedoc
4.62 ha high medium to high medium to high medium to high low to medium medium medium to high medium suitable for the production of sparkling wines fleshy berries. Clone considered «typical» in Champagne.
388 Marne ENTAV 1975 Champagne 2.17 ha high medium to high high high low suitable for the production of sparkling wines clone considered «not very typical» in Champagne
389 Marne ENTAV 1975 Champagne 2.06 ha high medium to high high high low suitable for the production of sparkling wines clone considered «not very typical» in Champagne
459 Jura ENTAV 1976 Burgundy
Languedoc
2.65 ha medium to high high high medium to high medium medium medium medium to high wines with a balanced and tannic structure satisfactory quality if yield is managed
460 Jura ENTAV 1976 Clone not widely distributed.
461 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1976 Clone not widely distributed.
462 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1976 Clone not widely distributed.
521 Marne ENTAV 1976 Champagne 1.59 ha medium to high medium to high medium to high medium suitable for the production of sparkling wines clone considered as «typical» in Champagne
528 Non précisée ENTAV 1976 Clone not widely distributed.
583 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1978 Burgundy
Languedoc
0.28 ha medium to high medium low to medium medium to high medium medium to high medium low to medium representative wines of the variety erect bearing "pinot droit" type. Good behaviour in Languedoc.
617 Non précisée ENTAV 1979 Clone not widely distributed.
665 Marne ENTAV 1980 Champagne 1.37 ha high high high medium to high low suitable for the production of sparkling wines clone considered «fairly typical» in Champagne
666 Marne ENTAV 1980 Champagne 1.80 ha high high high low suitable for the production of sparkling wines clone considered «fairly typical» in Champagne
667 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1980 Burgundy 3.54 ha low to medium low to medium low to medium medium medium to high medium medium medium fine and aromatic wines, good tannic structure clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained. Good aptitude for the production of wines suitable for ageing.
668 Marne ENTAV 1980 Champagne 0.74 ha high medium to high low to medium high low suitable for the production of sparkling wines clone considered «not very typical» in Champagne
743 Marne ENTAV 1981 Champagne 1.23 ha high high high medium suitable for the production of sparkling wines clone considered «not very typical» in Champagne
777 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1981 Burgundy
Languedoc
8.27 ha medium low low low to medium high medium to high low to medium medium to high typical, powerful and aromatic wines with a good tannic structure clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics, the quality and color of the wines obtained. Good aptitude for the production of wines suitable for ageing.
778 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1981 Clone not widely distributed.
779 Cher ENTAV 1981 Champagne 0.77 ha medium to high medium low to medium medium to high suitable for the production of sparkling wines clone considered as «typical» in Champagne
780 Marne ENTAV 1981 Champagne 0.39 ha high medium to high high high low suitable for the production of sparkling wines clone considered as «typical» in Champagne
792 Marne ENTAV 1984 Champagne 1.38 ha medium to high medium to high medium to high medium suitable for the production of sparkling wines clone considered as «typical» in Champagne
828 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1985 Burgundy 3.69 ha medium low low low to medium high medium to high medium medium to high typical, aromatic, round and balanced wines with a good tannic structure clone carrying the leafroll associated virus 2 variant Red Globe. Appreciated for its agronomic characteristics, the quality and colour of the wines obtained. Good aptitude for the production of wines suitable for ageing.
829 Saône-et-Loire ENTAV 1985 Burgundy 0.10 ha high high medium to high low representative wines of the variety
870 Marne ENTAV 1986 Champagne 0.99 ha medium to high medium to high medium to high medium suitable for the production of sparkling wines clone considered as «typical» in Champagne
871 Marne ENTAV 1988 Champagne 0.95 ha medium to high high high low suitable for the production of sparkling wines clone considered as «typical» in Champagne
872 Marne ENTAV 1989 Champagne 0.64 ha medium to high medium to high medium to high medium suitable for the production of sparkling wines clone considered as «typical» in Champagne
927 Cher ENTAV 1988 Champagne 0.57 ha medium to high medium low to medium medium to high suitable for the production of sparkling wines clone considered as «typical» in Champagne
943 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1989 Burgundy 0.72 ha medium low low low to medium high medium to high low to medium medium to high colored and concentrated wines more drooping bearing. To be used with care because of its particular behaviour depending on the vintage.
1184 Saône-et-Loire CA71 - IFV 2012 Burgundy low to medium low to medium low medium medium medium to high medium to high medium medium to high wines appreciated for their color and structure in the mouth low production level and above-average colour intensity
1185 Saône-et-Loire CA71 - IFV 2012 Burgundy medium to high low low low low medium to high high medium medium to high wines appreciated for their color, aromatic complexity and their quality in the mouth low production level and above-average colour intensity clone susceptible to millerandage
1196 Saône-et-Loire CA71 - IFV 2013 Burgundy medium to high low to medium medium medium low high high medium structured wines, with complex and typical aromas of the variety low production level and above-average colour intensity clone slightly susceptible to millerandage but less than 1185
1197 Saône-et-Loire CA71 - IFV 2013 Burgundy medium low to medium medium to high medium medium high medium to high medium high wines appreciated for their olfactory intensity and tannin suppleness low production level and higher olfactory intensity than average erect bearing