Grenache N
Name of the variety in France
Grenache
Origin
This variety was originally from Spain and was introduced to France in the Middle Ages.
Synonyms
In the European Union, Grenache is officially called by other names: Alicante (Italy), Cannonau (Italy), Tocai rosso (Italy), Garnacha Tinta (Spain), Grenache noir (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Croatia) and Grenache rouge (Greece). These synonyms are officially recognized in France regarding plant propagation material.
Legal information
In France, Grenache is officially listed in the "Catalogue of vine varieties" on the A list and classified. This variety is also listed in the catalogues of other Member States of the European Union: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain.
Use
Wine grape variety.
Evolution of cultivated areas in France
1958 1968 1979 1988 1998 2008 2018
ha 24886 51931 77669 86715 91619 98644 82966
Descriptive elements
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot with a low density of prostate hairs,
- the green and shiny young leaves,
- the shoots with green internoodes,
- the adult leaves with teeth with straight sides, no anthocyanin coloration of veins and petioles, a very twisted smooth leaf blade, and on the lower side of the leaves, no or a very low density of erect and prostate hairs,
- the yellow woody shoots,
- the round-shaped berries.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 135 223 239 191 188 258 240 243 239
Allel 2 143 238 243 191 188 258 254 243 249
Phenology
Bud burst: 6 days after Chasselas.
Grape maturity: late-season, 4 weeks after Chasselas.
Suitability for cultivation and agronomic production
This variety is very vigorous (strong vine trunks), is sometimes sensitive to coulure and can have issues with lignification. Grenache has an erect bearing and must be pruned short in gobelet or cordon. It easily shows symptoms of magnesium deficiency. It is better adapted to slightly acidic, gravel or stony (pebble) terroirs rather than to very limestone white soil.
Susceptibility to diseases and pests
This variety is very sensitive to downy mildew and phomopsis and is rather sensitive to bacterial necrosis, grey rot and vine moths. On the other hand, it is not very susceptible to mites and resists well against, ungrafted, Meloidogyne arenaria nematodes in the sands along the coast.
Technological potentiality
Grenache's bunches are medium to large and the berries are medium in size. It has a very high sugar accumulation potential but the color decreases quickly as the yields increase. Acidity is generally low. Grenache produces sweet wines and very structured, ample and aromatic great wines suited to ageing, provided that they are planted in quality terroirs and that the yields are perfectly managed.
Clonal selection in France
The twenty-six Grenache clones carry the numbers 70, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 224, 287, 362, 363, 432, 433, 434, 435, 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 814, 1064, 1065, 1212, 1270, 1271 and 1272. A conservatory of more than 360 clones was planted in the Côtes du Rhône in 1998.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages et de leurs synonymes. P. Galet, 2015, Ed. Libre&Solidaire, France.
- Traité général de viticulture, Ampélographie. P. Viala and V. Vermorel, 1901-1909, Ed. Masson, Paris, France.
Description of clones certified in France
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technological data Autres informations
Clone no. Marque Origin Selection Year of
certification
Agronomic
references
Surface area used
for propagation (year)
Fertility Production
level
Bunch
weight
Vigor Berry
size
Susceptibility
to grey rot
Sugar
level
Color
potential
Titrable
acidity
Tannic
structure
Aromatic
intensity
Oenological
suitability
New General
note
Agro-tecnic
note
Note
agronomique
Agronomic
note
Links
70 Vaucluse ENTAV 1971 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
30.60 ha medium to high high medium to high medium medium to high medium medium low to medium representative wines of the variety that sometimes lack structure productive clone, regular in sugar and polyphenol richness if production is managed
134 Aude INRA 1972 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
6.94 ha high high medium to high high medium low low to medium low to medium wines often lack structure and color very productive clone
135 Aude INRA 1972 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
12.59 ha low to medium medium medium low medium medium to high medium to high medium to high colored and structured wines clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained
136 Aude INRA 1972 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
22.85 ha medium to high low to medium low to medium low low to medium high medium to high medium to high balanced, colored and well-structured wines clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained
137 Aude INRA 1972 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
2.10 ha low to medium medium medium medium low low to medium low to medium wines sometimes lack concentration
139 Aude INRA 1972 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
4.51 ha low to medium medium medium low to medium medium representative wines of the variety clone carrying the leafroll associated virus 2. Irregular behaviour according to the circumstances of the vintage and the environment.
224 Vaucluse ENTAV 1973 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
15.94 ha medium high high medium medium low to medium medium representative wines of the variety that sometimes lack structure very productive clone
287 Vaucluse ENTAV 1973 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
3.12 ha medium to high high medium to high medium low to medium low to medium medium representative wines of the variety
362 Vaucluse ENTAV 1975 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
18.33 ha low to medium low low low high medium to high medium to high balanced, colored and well-structured wines less compact bunches. Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained. Tend to be more susceptible to coulure in years that favour this phenomenon.
363 Vaucluse ENTAV 1975 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
4.59 ha medium medium medium to high medium medium medium to high medium representative wines of the variety clone carrying the leafroll associated virus 2. Irregular behaviour according to the circumstances of the vintage and the environment.
432 Vaucluse ENTAV 1976 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
medium to high medium medium high low to medium representative wines of the variety irregular behaviour according to the conditions of the vintage and the environment
433 Vaucluse ENTAV 1976 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
1.52 ha medium to high medium medium medium medium to high medium to high medium to high representative wines of the variety
434 Vaucluse ENTAV 1976 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
3.87 ha medium to high medium to high medium high medium medium to high medium medium to high representative wines of the variety
435 Vaucluse ENTAV 1976 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
10.83 ha medium to high low to medium low to medium low to medium high medium to high medium to high balanced, colored and well-structured wines clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained
513 Non précisée ENTAV 1976 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
2.17 ha low low low to medium high medium to high medium to high balanced and well-structured wines clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained. Tend to be more susceptible to coulure in years favouring this phenomenon.
514 Ardèche ENTAV 1976 Rhône-Valley low to medium medium medium medium to high representative wines of the variety irregular behaviour according to the conditions of the vintage and the environment
515 Ardèche ENTAV 1976 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
1.25 ha medium to high medium to high medium low medium to high representative wines of the variety
516 Hérault ENTAV 1976 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
10.65 ha medium medium to high medium to high medium to high medium medium medium representative wines of the variety
517 Hérault ENTAV 1976 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
medium medium to high medium to high low to medium representative wines of the variety
814 Espagne ENTAV 1985 Languedoc-Roussillon
Rhône-Valley
0.35 ha medium high high medium to high low low to medium low to medium representative wines of the variety that sometimes lack structure very productive clone
1064 Espagne CA 84 - ENTAV 2002 Rhône-Valley 0.21 ha low low low to medium medium medium to high medium to high medium medium balanced wines with a good tannic structure clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained
1065 Espagne CA 84 - ENTAV 2002 Rhône-Valley 0.44 ha high low to high low medium to high high medium to high low to medium medium balanced wines with a good tannic structure clone interesting for its smaller and looser than average bunches, high alternation of production due to the effect of coulure. Wines appreciated in tasting.
1212 Vaucluse CA 84 - IFV 2014 Rhône-Valley high low low medium very low low low to medium high low to medium medium to high balanced, colored and well-structured wines clone with small berries and loose bunches, not very susceptible to grey rot. Late harvest and regular production. More colored wines appreciated in tasting
1270 Espagne Pépinières Mercier - IFV 2018
1271 Vaucluse Pépinières Mercier - IFV 2018
1272 Espagne Pépinières Mercier - IFV 2018