Chardonnay B
Name of the variety in France
Chardonnay
Origin
This variety is originally from Bourgogne (Burgundy) and based on published genetic analyses, would result from the crossbreeding of Pinot and Gouais blanc.
Synonyms
There is no officially recognized synonym in France nor in the other countries of the European Union, for this variety.
Legal information
In France, Chardonnay is officially listed in the "Catalogue of vine varieties" on the A list and classified. This variety is also listed in the catalogues of other Member States of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden.
Use
Wine grape variety.
Evolution of cultivated areas in France
1958 1968 1979 1988 1998 2008 2018
ha 7325 9805 13042 19869 33070 42017 54993
Descriptive elements
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot with a low to medium density of prostate hairs,
- the green young leaves with bronze spots,
- the shoots with red internodes,
- the circular adult leaves, entire or with five lobes, with a slightly open petiole sinus, often naked petiole veins, short teeth compared to their width with straight sides, a slightly blistered leaf blade, and on the lower side of the leaves, a low density of erect hairs,
- the round-shaped berries.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 135 232 239 178 188 244 238 216 239
Allel 2 141 236 243 186 196 246 254 227 271
Phenology
Bud burst: 1 day before Chasselas.
Grape maturity: early-season, 1 week and a half after Chasselas.
Suitability for cultivation and agronomic production
Chardonnay is generally pruned long. However, in areas with favorable climatic conditions for floral initiation, vines may also be pruned short. This variety is suited to moderately fertile soils with dominant limestone or marly. In Mediterranean areas, intense drought situations are to be avoided.
Susceptibility to diseases and pests
Chardonnay is susceptible to powdery mildew and strongly express grapevine yellows. At the end of its maturation and under strong vigor conditions, grey rot may cause significant damage.
Technological potentiality
The bunches and berries are small. This variety has an extermely high quality potential and is used to produce dry white wines, sparkling wines and even liqueur wines. The sugar content of the berries can reach high levels while maintaining high acidity. This is what enables the production of particularly well balanced, powerful and ample wines (full-bodied and with volume). The typical aromas are complex and intense (dried fruit, hazel nut, grilled flavor, exotic fruit, butter, etc). Chardonnay is also suited to barrel fermentation and barrel ageing.
Clonal selection in France
The thirty-one certified Chardonnay clones carry the numbers 75, 76, 77, 78, 95, 96, 116, 117, 118, 119, 121, 122, 124, 125, 128, 130, 131, 132, 277, 352, 414, 415, 548, 549, 809, 1066, 1067, 1068, 1145, 1146 and 1147. A conservatory of more than 340 clones was planted in 1994 in the French department of Saône-et-Loire. An other conservatory of 53 clones was planted in the French department of Champagne in 2015.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages et de leurs synonymes. P. Galet, 2015, Ed. Libre&Solidaire, France.
- Traité général de viticulture, Ampélographie. P. Viala and V. Vermorel, 1901-1909, Ed. Masson, Paris, France.
Description of clones certified in France
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technological data Autres informations
Clone no. Marque Origin Selection Year of
certification
Agronomic
references
Surface area used
for propagation (year)
Fertility Production
level
Bunch
weight
Vigor Berry
size
Susceptibility
to grey rot
Sugar
level
Color
potential
Titrable
acidity
Tannic
structure
Aromatic
intensity
Oenological
suitability
New General
note
Agro-tecnic
note
Note
agronomique
Agronomic
note
Links
75 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1971 Burgundy
Champagne
Languedoc
4.10 ha medium medium to high medium low to medium balanced but neutral wines, diluted due to overproduction uneven vigor and production according to regions. Manage the production for its use as still wines. It can also be used to produce sparkling wines.
76 Saône-et-Loire ENTAV 1971 Burgundy
Champagne
Languedoc
Loire-Valley
16.18 ha medium medium low to medium medium low to medium medium to high medium fine, aromatic, balanced, typical wines clone appreciated for its regularity of production, its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained. It can also be used to produce sparkling wines.
77 Saône-et-Loire ENTAV 1971 Clone not widely distributed.
78 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1971 Burgundy
Champagne
Loire-Valley
4.44 ha medium to high high medium low not very expressive as a still wine productive clone, suitable for the production of sparkling wines
95 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1971 Burgundy
Champagne
Languedoc
12.59 ha medium medium low to medium medium to high low to medium medium to high low to medium fine aromas, a rich and balanced structure clone appreciated for its regularity of production, its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained. It can also be used to produce sparkling wines.
96 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1971 Burgundy
Champagne
Languedoc
Loire-Valley
28.30 ha medium medium to high high high medium medium to high medium to high lively wines steady production, manage production for the production of still wines. It can also be used to make sparkling wines.
116 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1971 Clone not widely distributed.
117 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1971 Clone not widely distributed.
118 Côte-d'Or INRA 1971 Burgundy
Champagne
2.19 ha high high medium medium representative wines of the variety clone suitable for the production of sparkling wines
119 Côte-d'Or INRA 1971 Burgundy 0.94 ha medium to high medium to high medium low to medium representative wines of the variety
121 Côte-d'Or INRA 1971 Burgundy
Champagne
3.42 ha medium medium medium to high medium medium medium medium aromatic, fine, typical and balanced wines clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained. It can also be used to produce sparkling wines.
122 Côte-d'Or INRA 1971 Burgundy
Languedoc
0.56 ha medium medium to high high medium representative wines of the variety clone suitable for the production of sparkling wines
124 Côte-d'Or INRA 1971 Burgundy
Champagne
5.82 ha high high medium to high medium to high low to medium medium lively wines manage the production for its use in still wines. It can also be used to make sparkling wines.
125 Côte-d'Or INRA 1971 Burgundy high high medium medium representative wines of the variety
128 Côte-d'Or INRA 1971 Burgundy 0.42 ha medium to high medium to high medium to high medium to high representative wines of the variety
130 Côte-d'Or INRA 1971 Burgundy
Champagne
Languedoc
4.09 ha medium to high medium to high medium medium representative wines of the variety clone suitable for the production of sparkling wines
131 Côte-d'Or INRA 1971 Burgundy
Champagne
4.02 ha medium medium to high medium to high medium low to medium medium to high medium lively wines manage the production for its use in still wines. It can also be used to make sparkling wines.
132 Côte-d'Or INRA 1971 Burgundy
Champagne
3.34 ha high high high low to medium representative wines of the variety clone suitable for the production of sparkling wines
277 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1973 Burgundy
Loire-Valley
9.21 ha high medium to high medium to high medium to high low to medium medium medium balanced wines with mineral aromas irregular vigor and production that must be managed in order to obtain sufficient quality.
352 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1975 Clone not widely distributed.
414 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1976 Clone not widely distributed.
415 Côte-d'Or ENTAV 1976 Clone not widely distributed.
548 Saône-et-Loire ENTAV 1978 Burgundy 6.06 ha medium low low medium medium high medium to high concentrated, balanced wines with complex aromas earlier clone, appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained.
549 Non précisée ENTAV 1978 Burgundy 0.10 ha medium medium low to medium medium representative wines of the variety
809 Saône-et-Loire ENTAV 1985 Burgundy 1.98 ha medium low to medium low medium low to medium high high muscaté, fine and balanced wines clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained. To be used with care according to the muscat character desired.
1066 Côte-d'Or ATVB - ENTAV 2003 Burgundy low to medium very low very low low to medium high low to medium fine, typical, aromatic and well-structured wines small bunches with a lot of millerandage. Earlier clone, appreciated for its low production level, its higher sugar content and the quality of the wines obtained. To be used in blending and for high added value productions because of its low yield.
1067 Côte-d'Or ATVB - ENTAV 2003 Burgundy low low low to medium medium high medium concentrated and balanced wines with complex aromas earlier clone, appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained.
1068 Côte-d'Or ATVB - ENTAV 2003 Burgundy low to medium low to medium low to medium medium high medium muscaté aromas (more subtle following MLF), fine, a balanced structure clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained
1145 Saône-et-Loire CA71 - IFV 2010 Burgundy medium low to medium low to medium low to medium medium high low medium to high balanced wines with pronounced muscaté aromas Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained.
1146 Saône-et-Loire CA71 - IFV 2010 Burgundy medium to high low low low medium high low to medium high balanced wines with pronounced muscaté aromas Moderate level of production and wines appreciated for their organoleptic characteristics. A little susceptible to millerandage.
1147 Saône-et-Loire CA71 - IFV 2010 Burgundy medium low to medium low to medium low to medium low to medium high medium medium concentrated and well-balanced wines Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines obtained. A little susceptible to millerandage.