Cabernet-Sauvignon N
Name of the variety in France
Cabernet-Sauvignon
Origin
This variety is originally from the Bordeaux region. Based on published genetic studies, this variety would result from the crossbreeding between Cabernet franc and Sauvignon.
Synonyms
There is no officially recognized synonym in France nor in the other countries of the European Union, for this variety.
Legal information
In France, Cabernet-Sauvignon is officially listed in the "Catalogue of vine varieties" on the A list and classified. This variety is also listed in the catalogues of other Member States of the European Union: Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.
Use
Wine grape variety.
Evolution of cultivated areas in France
1958 1968 1979 1988 1998 2008 2018
ha 7841 11882 22992 36468 49393 60385 47751
Descriptive elements
The identification is based on:
- the red young leaves with bronze spots,
- the circular adult leaves, with seven or nine lobes, club-shaped or U-shaped lateral sinuses, a petiole sinus with slightly overlapping lobes, sometimes nakes petiole veins, medium to large length teeth with convex sides, a blistered leaf blade, and on the lower side of the leaves, a low density of prostate hairs,
- the round-shaped berries.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 137 229 239 172 188 248 238 233 239
Allel 2 149 238 239 186 194 248 248 235 239
Phenology
Bud burst: 13 days after Chasselas.
Grape maturity: mid-season, 3 weeks to 3 weeks and a half after Chasselas.
Suitability for cultivation and agronomic production
Cabernet-Sauvignon has a late budburst. It is vigorous,with large-diameter vine shoots under fertile conditions, very long branches (elongated internodes) and lignified tendrils. This variety requires careful trellishing. The pruning, which can be long or short in southern areas, is relatively slow. Large pruning wounds should be avoided. The removal of woods, which are hard, also requires considerable time consuming work. Cabernet-Sauvignon frequently produces better results on gravelly and draining ground, rather acid and well-exposed. This variety sometimes suffers from dessication of the stems and this risk is increased by the use of certain rootstocks such as S04.
Susceptibility to diseases and pests
Cabernet-Sauvignon is not very susceptible to grey rot. On the other hand, it is very suceptible to wood diseases (eutypa dieback, esca) and powdery mildew.
Technological potentiality
The bunches and berries are small. Cabernet-Sauvignon makes wines with a very interesting tannic structure and a deep color when it has reached a proper maturity. These wines are generally suitable for ageing and maturing in wood. This variety vegetal aromas are replaced by much more pleasant and complex aromas once the grapes have reached a proper maturity. On the other hand, when vinified alone and not blended, Cabernet-Sauvignon often lacks body and fullness.
Clonal selection in France
The nineteen certified Cabernet-Sauvignon clones carry the numbers 15, 169, 170, 191, 216, 217, 218, 219, 267, 269, 337, 338, 341, 410, 411, 412, 685, 1124 and 1125. A collection-conservatory, planted in the Bordeaux wine-growing region, includes more than 250 clones based on surveys carried out between 1966 and 1988.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages et de leurs synonymes. P. Galet, 2015, Ed. Libre&Solidaire, France.
- Traité général de viticulture, Ampélographie. P. Viala and V. Vermorel, 1901-1909, Ed. Masson, Paris, France.
Description of clones certified in France
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technological data Autres informations
Clone no. Marque Origin Selection Year of
certification
Agronomic
references
Surface area used
for propagation (year)
Fertility Production
level
Bunch
weight
Vigor Berry
size
Susceptibility
to grey rot
Sugar
level
Color
potential
Titrable
acidity
Tannic
structure
Aromatic
intensity
Oenological
suitability
New General
note
Agro-tecnic
note
Note
agronomique
Agronomic
note
Links
15 Gironde ENTAV 1971 Bordelais
Languedoc
Provence
Sud-Ouest
39.07 ha high high medium to high medium medium to high medium medium medium medium balanced and structured wines clone appreciated in the South of France, good compromise between production level and quality of the harvest provided that the yield is managed and the maturity is sufficient
169 Gironde ENTAV 1972 Bordelais
Languedoc
Sud-Ouest
46.38 ha low to medium low to medium low to medium low to medium high medium to high medium medium to high balanced and well-structured wines with round tannins clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and its aptitude to produce wines suitable for ageing En savoir plus
170 Val-de-Loire ENTAV 1972 Bordelais
Languedoc
Provence
Loire-Valley
5.39 ha medium medium medium medium medium medium medium medium balanced wines, representative of the variety representative clone of the variety
191 Gironde INRA 1973 Bordelais
Sud-Ouest
Languedoc
Provence
Loire-Valley
14.04 ha low to medium low low low low to medium high high medium high colored and well-structured wines clone carrying the leafroll associated virus 2. Tip of the young shoot and young leaves more bronzed. Risk of maturity blockage if water stress is too high. Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and its aptitude for the production of wines suitable for ageing.
216 Val-de-Loire ENTAV 1973 Languedoc
Provence
Loire-Valley
0.30 ha high high medium low to medium medium representative wines of the variety
217 Val-de-Loire ENTAV 1973 Languedoc
Provence
Loire-Valley
1.16 ha medium high medium medium medium representative wines of the variety
218 Gironde ENTAV 1973 Bordelais medium to high medium to high medium medium representative wines of the variety
219 Val-de-Loire ENTAV 1973 Languedoc
Loire-Valley
0.42 ha medium medium medium low to medium medium representative wines of the variety
267 Gironde ENTAV 1973 Loire-Valley medium to high high medium to high low to medium low to medium representative wines of the variety
269 Gironde ENTAV 1973 Loire-Valley high high medium medium medium representative wines of the variety
337 Gironde INRA 1975 Bordelais 28.39 ha medium medium medium medium medium to high medium to high medium medium to high rich and structured wines clone carrying the leafroll associated virus 2. Slightly shorter growing cycle. Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and its aptitude for producing wines suitable for ageing.
338 Gironde INRA 1975 Bordelais
Languedoc
9.68 ha medium medium medium to high medium medium medium to high medium medium to high balanced wines, representative of the variety
341 Gironde INRA 1975 Bordelais 8.25 ha low to medium low to medium low medium high medium to high medium medium to high balanced and structured wines clone carrying the leafroll associated virus 2. Appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and its suitability for the production of wines suitable for ageing.
410 Gironde ENTAV 1976 Bordelais medium medium medium medium medium representative wines of the variety
411 Gironde ENTAV 1976 Bordelais medium medium medium medium medium representative wines of the variety En savoir plus
412 Gironde ENTAV 1976 Bordelais
Languedoc
Provence
0.59 ha low to medium low low to medium low to medium high medium to high medium medium to high balanced and structured wines clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and its aptitude to produce wines suitable for ageing En savoir plus
685 Pyrénées-Atlantiques ENTAV 1980 Bordelais
Provence
Sud-Ouest
19.68 ha high high high medium medium medium medium medium representative wines of the variety more productive and more vigorous clone, slightly later
1124 Gironde CA 33 - IFV 2009 Bordelais medium medium medium medium to high low to medium medium medium to high high medium high colored and well-structured wines clone resulting from clone 191 sanitized by apex micrografting. It is free of the leafroll associated virus 2 Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and its aptitude for producing wines suitable for ageing. higher vigor than clone 191 En savoir plus
1125 Gironde CA 33 - IFV 2009 Bordelais medium medium medium medium medium medium medium to high high medium medium to high wines appreciated for their organoleptic quality, particularly regarding balance, color and structure clone belonging to another health family of clone 337. It is free of the leafroll associated virus 2 Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and its aptitude for producing wines suitable for ageing. slightly earlier maturity En savoir plus