Sélection Oppenheim 4
Name of vine variety in France (and common name)
Sélection Oppenheim 4 (SO 4)
Breeder and year of obtention
Sigmund Teleki and Heinrich Fuhr, 1896
Genetic origin
This variety is derived from the crossbreeding of  Vitis berlandieri and Vitis riparia derived from Euryale Rességuier.
Evolution of areas under rootstock nurseries
1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Rank 31 13 6 1 1 2 2 2
ha 0.8 27 363 821 512 339 461 357
Estimated surface area of French vineyards grafted with this rootstock and the main areas of use
180 000 ha. SO 4 is found in all wine growing areas in France.
Ampelographic description
Identification signs include:
- the tips of the young shoot are half opened with a anthocyanin pigmentation collar and a moderate coat of flat-lying hairs,
- young leaves are bronze color,
- the shoots are elongated with a ribbed contour, a slightly elliptical section, the nodes and the internodes are shiny red with reddish spots on the underside and an absence of upright and flat-lying hairs,
- trifid tendrils,
- adult leaves are large, wedge-shaped, upturned with an ondulated leaf blade between the veiins, a U-shaped or open V-shaped petiolar sinus, teeth with straight sides, slight anthocyaning pigmentation of veins and the underside with a sparse to moderate coat of uprights hairs,
- male flowers,
- vine shoots are dark brown.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 143 234 233 238 200 252 238 214 259
Allel 2 145 263 264 249 214 256 249 235 259
Resistance to soil parasites
SO 4 has high resistance to radicicolae phylloxera. Its resistance to nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria is also very good. Moderate resistance to the nematodes Meloidogyne hapla.
Adapt to environment
SO 4 resists up to 35% total limestone, 17% of active limestone with an CPI of 30. Its resistance to ferric chlorosis can be considered as moderate. It is well suited to acidic
soils and its tolerance for chlorides is fair but it is not very adapted to humidity (low to medium tolerance). This rootstock sometimes appears susceptible to Dutch elm disease. Its resistance to drought is medium to good but its adaptation to humidity is low to medium. SO 4 resists up to 35% total limestone, 17% of active limestone with a CPI of 30. Its resistance to ferric chlorosis can be considered as moderate. It is well suited to acidic soils and its tolerance for chlorides is fair but it is not very adapted to humidity (low to medium tolerance). This root stock sometimes appears susceptible to Dutch elm disease. Its resistance to drought is medium to good but its adaptation to humidity is low to medium. SO 4 doesn’t absorb magnesium very well and promotes the onset of black stem. This root stock is well suited to sandy soils (provided that the magnesium deficiency is corrected), valley terroirs and clay limestone soils which are moderately or not fertile. It however appears to be not well adapted to very dry terroirs, prone to chlorosis in addition to too
compact soils.
Interaction with grafts and production objectives
Generally speaking, SO 4 is quite compatible with grafts but the trunk radial growth is very limited. It is said that this rootstock has a “thin leg” which may create substantial differences in diameter with grafts and the need for trellising. The growth speed for plants grafted SO
4 is substantial and the vigor transferred to the grafts by the root stock is high, particularly during the first part of the vine’s life cycle (the first 15 years). SO 4 produces high yields, starting from the first years after planting which sometimes requires thinning. Good sugar contents are produced but the wines obtained oftentimes lack body and sometimes have herbaceous notes due to its high yields. SO 4 likewise produces wines with high pH levels.
Aptitudes for plant propagation
SO 4 is a good wood producer (60 000 to 100 000 m/ha) sometimes however with a certain proportion of dry wood. It reacts well to fertilization and irrigation but wood lignifies fairly late. This rootstock has good propagation by cuttings and grafting aptitude and is easy to debud and cut. Its internodes have a medium size diameter and the growth of quick buds is limited. Hormoning when carried out should be moderate and the duration of stratification may sometimes be longer.
Resistance to aerial parasites
SO 4 has low to medium susceptibility with regard to gallicolae phylloxera  and anthracnosis and displays high resistance to downy mildew.
Clonal selection in France
The 24 SO 4 approved clones carry the numbers 5, 15, 18, 20, 72, 73, 74, 102, 103, 104, 106, 156, 157, 158, 159, 161, 165, 166, 174, 203, 204, 205, 761 and 762.