4010 Castel
Name of vine variety in France (and common name)
4010 Castel (4010 Cl)
Breeder and year of obtention
Pierre Castel, 1906
Genetic origin
This variety is derived from the crossbreeding of Vitis riparia cv. Grand glabre and Aramon Rupestris Ganzin number 1.
Evolution of areas under rootstock nurseries
1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Rank 21 24 23 23 23 24 24
ha 1 1 2 2 1 0.5 0.5
Estimated surface area of French vineyards grafted with this rootstock and the main areas of use
600 ha. Aquitaine
Ampelographic description
Identification signs include:
- the tip of the young shoot is half-open with an absence or very slight coat of flat-lying hairs,
- the young leaves are bronze with smooth contours shoots and moderate to strong anthocyanin coloration,
- adult leaves are kidney-shaped, upturned with an open brace-shaped petiolar sinus,
- male flowers,
- vine shoots are brownish-red to violet with an absence of flat-lying and upright hairs.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 135 232 243 236 188 256 236 235 249
Allel 2 159 261 251 236 190 256 236 243 249
Resistance to soil parasites
The tolerance level of 4010 Cl to radicicolae phylloxera is moderate. It must therefore be used under unfavorable conditions for this pest, but its resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria and Meloidogyne incognita nématodes is good.
Adapt to environment
Its tolerance level to chlorosis is low and it reists just up to 6% active limestone. 4010 Cl does not absorb magnesium very well. It is adapted to acid soils, very little or not limestone, compact or not, but with sufficient water input.
Interaction with grafts and production objectives
4010 Cl vigor is fairly strong. This root stock tends to favor fertility. It, however, favors early vegetative growith cycles.
Aptitudes for plant propagation
4010 Cl displays moderate wood production (30 000 to 40 000 m/ha) but displays good propagation by cuttings and grafting capacity.
Resistance to aerial parasites
The tolerance level of 4010 Cl to gallicolae phylloxera and its resistance to downy mildew is moderate.
Clonal selection in France
the 2 approved 4010 Cl clones carry the numbers 243 and 244.