333 Ecole de Montpellier
Name of vine variety in France (and common name)
333 Ecole de Montpellier (333 EM)
Breeder and year of obtention
Gustave Foëx, 1883
Genetic origin
Thiq variety was derived from the crossbreeding of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon N and Vitis berlandieri.
Evolution of areas under rootstock nurseries
1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Rank 28 15 16 16 20 18 18 15
ha 2 7 15 43 18 12 8 16
Estimated surface area of French vineyards grafted with this rootstock and the main areas of use
4 000 ha. Champagne, Charentes
Ampelographic description
Identification signs include:
- the tip of the young shootis open and has an anthocyanin pigmentation on the edges and a heavy coat of flat-lying hairs,  
- the young leaves are reddish,
- the shoot has a very ribbed contour and a circular or slightly elliptical section and an absence of upright or flat-lying hairs, 
- adult leaves are orbicular, whole or 5-lobed with a bubbled and shiny leaf blade, upturned and twisted on the edges, a slightly opened or slightly overlapping folded petiolar sinus oftentimes limited by the vein near the petiolar point,
- male flowers,
- vine shoots are very ribbed.
Genetic profile
Allel 1 137 217 231 238 194 248 238 235 239
Allel 2 147 229 239 250 220 260 250 235 257
Resistance to soil parasites
333 EM has a moderate to high degree of tolerance to  radicicolae phylloxera. It is sensitive to the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria.
Adapt to environment
333 EM is characterized by its very good adaptation to limestone soils and its resistance to chlorosis. It resists in fact up to 60% total limestone, 40% active limestone and a CPI of 70.
This root stock is likewise well adapted to drought and temporary excess humidity in the spring. On the other hand, it is sensitive to chlorides. 333 EM is well adapted to shallow, dry and limestone soils.
Interaction with grafts and production objectives
The vigor of 333 EM to grafts is high and produces fairly high yields. It can however sometimes promote the onset of coulure. The first development of plants is fairly slow with this root stock. Under not very fertile or limiting conditions, 333 EM produces good quality products.
Aptitudes for plant propagation
Wood production is very low (10 000 to 30 000 m/ha) and climatic conditions in the autumn must be favorable in order to obtain good lignifying of vine shoots. The propagation by cuttings capacity of 333 EM is moderate. It displays good capacity for grafting but large wood diameter may be bothersome.
Resistance to aerial parasites
333 EM displays a high degree of tolerance to gallicolae phylloxera and moderate resistance to downy mildew. On the other hand, it is very sensitive to leaf blister mites.
Clonal selection in France
The 4 approved 333 EM clones carry the numbers 260, 263, 1049 and 1105.