3309 Couderc
Name of vine variety in France (and common name)
3309 Couderc (3309 C)
Breeder and year of obtention
Georges Couderc, 1881
Genetic origin
This variety results from the crossbreeding between Vitis riparia (tomentose) and Vitis rupestris cv. Martin.
Evolution of areas under rootstock nurseries
1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Rank 2 2 3 5 4 3 3 3
ha 341 607 486 353 276 294 291 274
Estimated surface area of French vineyards grafted with this rootstock and the main areas of use
105 000 ha. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Val de Loire, Aquitaine, Alsace, Midi-Pyrénées, Rhône-Alpes, Languedoc-Roussillon, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Champagne.
Ampelographic description
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot that is closed, with a low to medium density of erect hairs and no prostate hairs,
- the reddish to bronzed young leaves,
- the purplish shoots with a bushy and erect bearing, an elliptic to circular section, and no erect and prostate hairs,
- the small to medium, circular, entire adult leaves, with an open U-shaped petiole sinus, sometimes with naked petiole veins, or V-shaped for the leaves of the secondary shoots, a smooth, shiny, involute leaf blade, sometimes slightly  goffered or hammered, a moderate to strong anthocyanin coloration of the veins, and on the lower side of the leaves, a low density of erect hairs and no prostate hairs, 
- the male flowers with anythocyanin coloration around the base of the petals,
- the browny red to purplish woody shoots, with erect or prostate hairs.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 120 250 245 236 180 256 236 239 236
Allel 2 159 261 259 238 190 258 238 245 245
Resistance to soil parasites
3309 C has a very high tolerance to the root form of phylloxera but is sensitive to Meloidogyne arenaria and Meloidogyne incognita nematodes. It would be fairly tolerant to Agrobacterium vitis.
Adapt to environment
The 3309 C tolerance to chlorosis is low to moderate and it only resists up to 20% of "total" limestone, 11% of "active" limestone and an ICP of 10. However, it seems to be well suited to acidic soils. 3309 C is sensitive to water stress, particularly when it occurs suddenly during the growing cycle. Its adaptation to water excess is also weak. 3309 C absords magnesium very easily but potassium with more difficulty. This rootstock is extremely sensitive to chlorides and its use must be avoided if there is a risk of salinity. 3309 C is well adapted to deep, sandy-clay, clay-limestone, with no or very little limestone soils.
Interaction with grafts and production objectives
3309 C generally has a good affinity with grafts. However, some joining problems have been noticed with Cabernet-Sauvignon, Chenin, Dattier de Beyrouth, Pineau d’Aunis, Riesling, Syrah and Sauvignon. Some of these varieties are grafted in significant amount with 3309 C. The growth and fruit set speed given by 3309 C is a little slow. Vigor confered by 3309 C is low to moderate and vegetative growth is balanced, especially if the agronomic fertility of the soil is not too high. 3309 C promotes the fruit set of sensitive varieties to coulure. The varieties grafted onto this rootstock produce recognized quality products and the associations with Cabernet franc, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Colombard, Fer, Gamay, Gros Manseng, Melon, Merlot, Petit Manseng, Pinot noir, Sauvignon, Semillon, Riesling, Syrah and Tannat are particular appreciated.
Aptitudes for plant propagation
The length of the internodes is low to moderate and the diameter is moderate. The practice of green disbudding is recommended. The important growth of lateral shoot buds and the lignified tendrils make the cleaning and disbudding difficult. 3309 C wood production is low to moderate (20 000 to 50 000 m/ha) with sometimes a certain proportion of damaged wood. This rootstock has excellent cuttings rooting and grafting capacities. Its canes are easily preserved. They require a good rehydratation but the application of hormones is not necessary and should be moderate if performed.
Resistance to aerial parasites
This rootstock is sensitive to the gall form of phylloxera. It is also sensitive to anthracnose but shows a good resistance to downy mildew.
Clonal selection in France
In France, the 9 certified 3309 C clones carry the numbers 8, 111, 143, 144, 147, 173, 188, 189 and 1160. Joining issues have sometimes been noticed, particularly with the clone number 111. Among those, the clones multiplied are:
- clone No. 8: 25 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 111: 9 ha 33 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 143: 49 ha 81 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 144: 197 ha 76 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 147: 7 ha 99 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017,
- clone No. 1160: 20 ha 46 ares of mother vines producing certified material, in 2017.

Datas are extracted from: Les chiffres de la pépinière viticole, 2017, Datas and assesment of FranceAgriMer, may 2018.