3309 Couderc
Name of vine variety in France (and common name)
3309 Couderc (3309 C)
Breeder and year of obtention
Georges Couderc, 1881
Genetic origin
This is a vine variety derived from the crossbreeding between Vitis riparia (tomentose) and Vitis rupestris cv. Martin.
Evolution of areas under rootstock nurseries
1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Rank 2 2 3 5 4 3 3 3
ha 341 607 486 353 276 294 291 265
Estimated surface area of French vineyards grafted with this rootstock and the main areas of use
105 000 ha. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Val de Loire, Aquitaine, Alsace, Midi-Pyrénées, Rhône-Alpes, Languedoc-Roussillon, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Champagne
Ampelographic description
Identification signs include:
- the tips of the young shoots are closed with asparse to moderate coat of upright hairs and an absence of flat-lying hairs,
- the young leaves are reddish to bronze colored,
- the vine shoot with a bushy and upright growth, an elliptical to round section, purplish color, with an absence of flat-lying and upright hairs,
- adult leaves are small to moderate in size, orbicular, whole, upturned, with an open U-shaped petiolar sinus, sometimes limited by a vein near the petiolar point, or V-shaped on the secondary vine shoot leaves; smooth leaf blades, shiny, sometimes slightly  cupped or hammered, with a moderate to strong anthocyanin coloration of the veins, and the underside with an absence of flat-lying hairs and a sparse coat of upright hairs, 
- male flowers have anythocyanin coloration at the petal grafting point,
- vine shoots are brownish-red to purple with an absence of flat-lying or upright hairs.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 120 250 245 236 180 256 236 239 236
Allel 2 159 261 259 238 190 258 238 245 245
Resistance to soil parasites
3309 C shows a good tolerance level to radicicolae phylloxera but is sensitive to Meloidogyne arenaria and Meloidogyne incognita nematodes. It shows a certain tolerance level to Agrobacterium vitis.
Adapt to environment
The 3309 C tolerance level to chlorosis is weak to moderate and it has just a 20% resistance to total limestone, 11% of active limestone and with a CPI of 10. It would however apper to be well suited to acidic soil. 3309 C is sensitive to water stress, particularly when this occurs suddenly during the growing cycle. In the same way, its adaptation to waterlogging is weak. 3309 C easily absords magnesium and potassium a little more difficultly. This rootstock is extremely chloride-sensitive and this must be avoided when there is a risk of salinity. 3309 C is well adapted to deep, sand clay, clay limestone, with no or just slight limestone soils.
Interaction with grafts and production objectives
3309 C generally has a good affinity to grafts. However, some blending problems have been noted with Cabernet-Sauvignon N,  Chenin B,  Dattier de Beyrouth B, Pineau d’Aunis N, Riesling, Syrah N and Sauvignon B. Some of these varieties are grafted in large amounts with 3309 C. The growth speed and the fruit set of 3309 C is a little slow. Vigor is low to moderate and plant growth obtained is balanced, especially if the agronomic fertility of the soil is not too high. 3309 C promotes the setting of vines sensitive to coulure. Recognized quality products are obtained from grafted plants on this root stock and from blends made with  Cabernet franc N, Cabernet-Sauvignon N, Chardonnay B, Colombard B, Fer N,  Gamay N,  Gros Manseng B,  Melon B,  Merlot N,  Petit Manseng B,  Pinot noir N,  Sauvignon B,  Semillon B,  Riesling B,  Syrah N and Tannat N are particular favorites.
Aptitudes for plant propagation
The length of the inter-nodes is low to moderate and the diameter is moderate. The practice of green de-budding is recommended. The important growth of accessory buds and the lignified tendrils make de-budding difficult. Wood production is low to moderate (20 000 to 50 000 m/ha) with a certain proportion sometimes damaged. This root stock however has excellent capacity for propagtion by cuttings recovery and for grafting. Its wood is easily maintained. It requires good rehydratation but applying hormones is not necessary and should be moderate if carried out.
Resistance to aerial parasites
This root stock is sensitive to gallicolae phylloxera. It is likewise sensitive to anthracnosis but shows good resistance to downy mildew.
Clonal selection in France
The 9 approved 3309 C clones carry the numbers 8, 111, 143, 144, 147, 173, 188, 189 and 1160. Difficulty with blending have occasionally occurred, particularly with clone number 111.