216-3 Castel
Name of vine variety in France (and common name)
216-3 Castel (216-3 Cl)
Breeder and year of obtention
Pierre Castel, 1906
Genetic origin
This variety is derived from the crossbreeding of 1616 Couderc and Vitis rupestris cv. Lot.
Evolution of areas under rootstock nurseries
1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Rank 21 16 21 28 28 26 26 27
ha 4 6 5 0.3 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
Estimated surface area of French vineyards grafted with this rootstock and the main areas of use
35 ha.
Ampelographic description
Identification signs include:
- the tip of the young shoot is half-open with a slight coat of flat-lying hairs,
- the shoot has moderate anthocyanin coloration,
- thin tendrils,
- adult leaves are kidney-shaped, upturned with an open petiolar sinus, teeth with one slightly convex side and one side slightly concave,
- male flowers.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 135 234 251 236 190 256 236 218 234
Allel 2 139 265 260 238 196 264 238 241 243
Resistance to soil parasites
The tolerance level of 216-3 Cl to radicicolae phylloxera is high but it is susceptible to Meloidogyne arenaria and Meloidogyne incognita nematodes.
Adapt to environment
216-3 Cl resists only up to 10% active limestone. It is fairly well adapted to drought and presents a slight tolerance to chlorides.
Interaction with grafts and production objectives
216-3 Cl is a strong vigor root stock.
Aptitudes for plant propagation
Low wood production (25 000 to 35 000 m/ha). 216-3 Cl displays moderate propagation by cuttings capacity with low grafting capacity.
Resistance to aerial parasites
The tolerance level of 216-3 Cl to gallicolae phylloxera is good and it demonstrates high resistance to downy mildew.
Clonal selection in France
The only approved 216-3 Cl clone carries the number 115.