196-17 Castel
Name of vine variety in France (and common name)
196-17 Castel (196-17 Cl)
Breeder and year of obtention
Pierre Castel, 1906
Genetic origin
This variety was derived from the crossbreeding of 1203 Couderc (Vitis vinifera-Vitis rupestris) and Vitis riparia cv. Gloire de Montpellier.
Evolution of areas under rootstock nurseries
1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Rank 24 17 17 19 19 19 17 21
ha 3 3 13 23 16 9 9 3.5
Estimated surface area of French vineyards grafted with this rootstock and the main areas of use
1 500 ha. Languedoc-Roussillon
Ampelographic description
Identification signs include:
- the tip of the young shoot is half-opened with an absence or just slight coat of flat-lying hairs,
- the vine shoot has a smooth contour and a medium to heavy anthocyanin pigmentation,
- the adult leaves are orbicular shaped,upturned and funnel-shaped with a slightly open or closed petiolar sinus; a wavy leaf blade between the veins; large teeth with straight sides,
- male flowers,
- vine shoots are brownish red to violet with an absence of flat-lying and upright hairs.
Genetic profile
Allel 1 131 263 249 238 188 256 238 214 239
Allel 2 143 263 264 240 200 262 240 243 239
Resistance to soil parasites
196-17 Cl displays moderate tolerance to radicicolae phylloxera  and it is preferable to implant under favorable conditions for this pest. It is however sensitive to Meloidogyne arenaria and Meloidogyne incognita nematodes.
Adapt to environment
196-17 Cl is sensitive to chlorosis and resist just up to 6% of active limestone and to a CPI of 5. It is well adapted to drought and acid soils. It likewise displays a slight tolerance to chlorides. 196-17 Cl is particularly adapted to schist or granite, dry, lean, superficial and stony soils along with sandy soils with an absence of endoparasitic nematodes.
Interaction with grafts and production objectives
196-17 Cl has substantial vigor and can be used to replace lacking plants.
Aptitudes for plant propagation
196-17 Cl has moderate wood production (30 000 to 60 000 m/ha) but displays a good capacity for propagation by cuttings and grafting.
Resistance to aerial parasites
The tolerance level of 196-17 Cl to the gallicolae phylloxera is good and it displays moderate resistance to downy mildew.
Clonal selection in France
The only approved clone for 196-17 Cl carries the number 99.