140 Ruggeri
Name of vine variety in France (and common name)
140 Ruggeri (140 Ru)
Breeder and year of obtention
Antonino Ruggeri, 1894
Genetic origin
This variety is the result of crossbreeding Vitis berlandieri cv. Rességuier number 2 and Vitis rupestris cv. Lot.
Evolution of areas under rootstock nurseries
1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015
Rank 13 7 5 5 4 5
ha 56 273 287 189 221 149
Estimated surface area of French vineyards grafted with this rootstock and the main areas of use
50 000 ha. Languedoc-Roussillon, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Rhône-Alpes, Corsica, Charentes
Ampelographic description
Identification signs include:
- the tips of the young shoot are half-openend and have a sparse coat of flat-lying hairs,
- the young leaves are slightly bronze and shiny,
- the shoot has horizontal growth, ribbed contour, a circular or slightly elliptical section with an absence of flat lying and upright hairs,
- adult leaves are moderate size, kidney shaped, whole, slightly upturned with a very coat of flat lying or upright hairs  open tied down petiolar sinus; slight anthocyanin pigmentation of veins, moderate size teeth with convex sides, smooth leaf blade, shiny slightly ondulated between the veins and the underside with an absence or a  very sparse coat of flat lying and upright hairs
- flowers are male.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 135 244 231 236 196 244 236 233 251
Allel 2 141 265 257 262 214 260 262 241 251
Resistance to soil parasites
140 Ru displays good resistance to radicicolae phylloxera. This root stock's resistance to the nematode Meloidogyne arenaria is high but is just moderate for the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita.
Adapt to environment
140 Ru is characterized by its good adaptation to limestone soils and its high drought resistance. It resists up to 50% of total limestone, 20% of active limestone and a CPI of 90.140 Ru absorbs magnesium well and is essentially suited to limestone, dry, lean, superficial and stony soils.
Interaction with grafts and production objectives
140 Ru has a very high degree of vigor. This root stock has strong plant development and tends to delay the growing cycle. Blends with varieties which are very vigorous, like Grenache N, Sauvignon B, Sultanine B, Ugni blanc B and especially Mourvèdre N, should be reserved for exceptional situations. Blending with these varieties and with others like Caladoc N,
Carignan N,  Marselan N,  Négrette N, Tempranillo N and Syrah N, may create problems linked to developing large calluses or swelling of the grafts or bad joining at the graft point. The concerned plants redden in the autumn for black varieties and yellow white varieties due to poor vascularization between the root stock and the graft. They sometimes need to be replaced for young plantations.
Aptitudes for plant propagation
140 Ru has moderate length internodes with a fairly large diameter. The growth of quick buds is moderate and wood production is low to medium.  (25 0000 to 60 000 m/ha). Care needs to be taken for the proper lignifying of the shoots and their conservation under good conditions. The aptitude for propagation by cuttings 140 Ru is low and grafting is moderate since the joining areas are weak and often too big. Particular attention must be paid during the stratification phase (length, hormoning) in order to avoid the formation of large calluses.
Resistance to aerial parasites
140 Ru is sensitive to gallicolae phylloxera but is highly resistant to downy mildew and not very affected by anthracnosis.
Clonal selection in France
The 10 approved 140 Ru clones carry the numbers 101, 200, 216, 217, 227, 229, 230, 265, 765 and 766.