Syrah N
Name of vine variety in France
Syrah
Origin
This variety is seemingly originally from the northern Côtes du Rhône or the Dauphiné region. Based on published genetic analyses, it is the result of crossbreeding between Mondeuse blanche B and Dureza N.
Synonymy
In France, this variety can officially be called "Shiraz N" or "Serine N" with regard to plant propagating material.In the European Union, Syrah N can officially be called by other names: Shiraz (Germany, Italy, Cyprus, Malta), Sira (Bulgaria).
Regulations
En France, la Syrah N is officially listed in the "Catalogue of vine varieties".

This vine variety is likewise listed in the Catalogues of other European Union member states: Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Spain, Greece, Italy, Hungary, Malta, Portugal and Slovenia.
Use
Wine vine variety
Evolution of area under vines in France
1958 1968 1979 1988 1998 2008 2016
ha 1602 2658 12282 27041 44823 67834 65592
Description
Identification signs include:
- the tips of the young shoot have a very dense coat of flat-lying hairs,
- the young leaves are green,
- the shoot has a ribbed surface and long green internodes,
- adult leaves are 5-lobed with an open petiole sinus and a base sometimes limited by a vein near the petiole point; open lateral sinuses; short to moderate size teeth with convex sides; absence of anthocyanin coloration of veins; sometimes cupped leaf blade and the underside with a sparse to moderate coat of flat-lying hairs,
- elliptical-shaped berries.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 131 223 239 186 188 246 240 216 239
Allel 2 131 229 239 188 194 252 240 227 271
Phenology
Bud burst: 7 days after Chasselas.
Grape maturity: period II, 2 and 1/2 weeks after Chasselas.
Suitability for cultivation and agronomic production
This variety produces long and fragile shoots with regard to spring winds and must be carefully trellissed. In most cases, short pruning is sufficient in southern zones. Syrah N is a variety which is sensitive to chlorosis, poorly adapted to soils with high active limestone content. Using with 110 R must absolutely be avoided. This variety ripens quickly, which translates by a relatively short véraison-ripeness period. The optimum harvest period id short and is evaluated not only be sugar and acidity content, but also by the weight of the berries, grape cluster and berry analysis and berry tasting.
Sensitivity to diseases and pests
Syrah N is rather sensitive to mites and grey rot, especially at the end of the ripening period. This variety has a specific vine stock decline behavior characterized by foliar reddening accompanied by cracks at the grafting points, which can in the long term cause the vine stocks to die. To date, the causes remain unknown and no pathogenic agents have been identified, but important behavioral differences between clones have been noted.
Technological potential
Grape clusters are small to moderate in size and the berries are small. Syrah N can produce top quality red wine with a good alcohol degree, and capacity for ageing. These wines tend to have an intense (bluish) color, are very aromatic, fine and with complex nuances (violet, olive, leather-animal, etc), tannic, robust with relatively low acidity (pH is sometimes rather high, particularly on schist soils). Syrah N likewise produces very fruity and interesting rosé wines.
Clonal selection in France
The 12 approved Syrah N clones carry the numbers 100, 174, 300, 470, 471, 524, 525, 747, 877, 1140, 1141 and 1188. A conservatory with over 600 clones was set up in 1995 in the Drôme. An additional conservatory including 50 or so clones was set up in 2002 in the Rhône.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi.
- Documentation interne du Domaine de Vassal. 1949-2011, INRA, Marseillan-plage.
- Cépages et vignobles de France, tome 2. P. Galet, 1990, Ed. Dehan, Montpellier.
- Ampélographie. P. Viala et V. Vermorel, 1902-1910, Ed. Masson, Paris.
Description of clones approved in France
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
100  Drôme  ENTAV  high  high  low to medium  low to medium
 1971  Côtes-du-Rhône
Languedoc
Provence
Sud-Ouest
 high    medium  low to medium
 26.83 ha  high  medium to high    distinctive wines of the vine variety, but sometimes lacking structure
Clone generally presenting high levels of blight symptoms. Compact grape clusters. Productive clone.
174  Drôme  ENTAV  medium to high  medium  medium to high  medium
 1972  Côtes-du-Rhône
Languedoc
Provence
Sud-Ouest
 low to medium  medium  medium  medium to high
 43.09 ha  low to medium  medium    aromatic, balanced wines with long finish
Clone presenting varying degrees of blight symptoms. Slightly compact grape clusters. Clone appreciated for its increased upright growth, its agronomic characteristics and the quality of wines produced.
300  Drôme  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium to high  medium to high
 1973  Côtes-du-Rhône
Languedoc
Provence
 low    medium  medium
 20.89 ha  low  medium    round wines with good olfactory intensity
Clone generally presenting moderate levels of blight symptoms. Increased upright growth. Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced.
470  Tarn-et-Garonne  ENTAV  very low  low  high  high
 1976  Côtes-du-Rhône
Languedoc
Provence
 low  high  medium to high  high
 18.83 ha  medium  low    aromatic, concentrated wines with good tannic structure
Clone presenting very few blight symptoms. Low production level, especially under limiting conditions. High vigor and drooping growth. Fairly loose grape clusters. Clone appreciated for the grape cluster configuration, its low production potential and the color and quality of the wines produced.
471  Drôme  ENTAV  medium to high  medium to high  medium to high  medium to high
 1976  Côtes-du-Rhône
Languedoc
Provence
 medium  high  medium  medium to high
 12.64 ha  medium  medium    round wines with good tannic structure on the palate
Clone generally presenting few blight symptoms. Less compact grape clusters. Good maturity despite production level.
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
524  Drôme  ENTAV  high  high  medium  
 1976  Côtes-du-Rhône
Languedoc
Provence
 high    medium  
 7.37 ha  medium to high  medium    distinctive wines of the vine variety
Clone presenting very few blight symptoms. Less compact grape clusters.
525  Drôme  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium to high  medium to high
 1976  Côtes-du-Rhône
Languedoc
Provence
 medium    medium to high  medium to high
 21.55 ha  low to medium  medium to high    balanced and well-structured wines
Clone displaying moderate to high rate of dieback symptoms. Somewhat compact grape clusters. Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of the wines obtained.
747  Tarn-et-Garonne  ENTAV  medium to high  high  low to medium  low to medium
 1981  Côtes-du-Rhône
Languedoc
Sud-Ouest
 medium to high    medium  low to medium
 16.57 ha  high      distinctive wines of the vine variety
Clone presenting very few blight symptoms
877  Tarn-et-Garonne  INRA  low to medium  low  high  high
 1986  Côtes-du-Rhône
Languedoc
Sud-Ouest
 low    medium  high
 20.56 ha  low to medium  low to medium    aromatic, concentrated wines with good tannic structure
Clone generally presenting moderate blight symptoms. Less compact grape clusters. Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced.
1140  Drôme  CA26 - IFV  medium to high  medium to low  high  medium to high
 2012  Côtes-du-Rhône  low  medium  medium  high
   low  medium to low    Wines appreciated for their olfactory quality and the balance on the palate.
Clone presenting very few blight symptoms. Appreciated for the quality of the wines produced.
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
1141  Rhône  CA26 - IFV  medium to low  low  high  medium to high
 2012  Côtes-du-Rhône  low  medium  medium  high
   low  medium to low    Wines appreciated for their olfactory quality and the balance on the palate.
Clone presenting very few blight symptoms. Appreciated for the quality of the wines produced.
1188  Rhône  CA26 - IFV  high  medium  high  medium to high
 2012  Côtes-du-Rhône  low  medium  medium  high
   low  medium to low    Wines appreciated for their olfactory quality and the balance on the palate.
Clone presenting very few blight symptoms. Appreciated for the quality of the wines produced.