Syrah N
Name of vine variety in France
Syrah
Origin
This variety is seemingly originally from the northern Côtes du Rhône or the Dauphiné region. Based on published genetic analyses, it would be the result of crossbreeding between Mondeuse blanche and Dureza.
Synonymy
In France, this variety can officially be called "Shiraz" or "Serine" regarding plant propagation material.Syrah can officially be designated as Shiraz in Cyprus, Germany, Italy and Malta.
Regulations
En France, la Syrah is officially listed in the "Catalogue of vine varieties" on the A list and classified. This variety is also listed in the catalogues of other Member States of the European Union: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain.
Use
Wine grape variety.
Evolution of area under vines in France
1958 1968 1979 1988 1998 2008 2018
ha 1602 2658 12282 27041 44823 67834 65772
Description
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot with a high density of prostate hairs,
- the green young leaves,
- the shoots with a ribbed surface and long green internodes,
- the adult leaves with five lobes, open lateral sinuses, an open petiole sinus with sometimes naked petiole veins, short to medium teeth with convex sides, no anthocyanin coloration of veins, a sometimes goffered leaf blade, and on the lower side of the leaves, a low to medium density of prostate hairs,
- the ellipsoid berries.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 131 223 239 186 188 246 240 216 239
Allel 2 131 229 239 188 194 252 240 227 271
Phenology
Bud burst: 7 days after Chasselas.
Grape maturity: mid-season, 2 weeks and a half after Chasselas.
Suitability for cultivation and agronomic production
This variety produces long shoots that are fragile to the wind in spring and must be carefully trellised. In most cases, short pruning is sufficient in southern zones. Syrah is sensitive to chlorosis, poorly adapted to soils with high active limestone content. Then, grafting onto 110 R must absolutely be avoided. This variety ripens quickly, resulting in a relatively short véraison-ripeness period. The optimum harvest period is short and is evaluated not only by considering sugar and acidity concentrations, but also by the weight of the berries, bunches and berry analysis, and berry tasting.
Sensitivity to diseases and pests
Syrah is rather sensitive to mites and grey rot, especially at the end of the ripening period. This variety has a specific decline behavior, characterized by leaf reddening combined with at the grafting point, which can in the long term cause the vine trunks to die. To date, the causes remain unknown and no disease causative agent have been identified, but significant behavioral differences between clones have been noted.
Technological potential
The bunches are small to medium in size and the berries are small. Syrah can produce great quality red wines with a fairly high alcohol degree, that are suited to ageing. This variety gives very aromatic, fine, tannic, robust, complex (violet, olive, leather-animal, etc) wines with relatively low acidity (pH is sometimes rather high, particularly on schist soils), which tend to have an intense (blue-toned) color. Syrah also produces very fruity and interesting rosé wines.
Clonal selection in France
The seven certified Syrah clones carry the numbers 470, 471, 524, 747, 1140, 1141 and 1188. A conservatory of more than 600 clones was planted in 1995 in the French department of Drôme. An additional conservatory of 50 or so clones was planted in 2002 in the French department of Rhône.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages et de leurs synonymes. P. Galet, 2015, Ed. Libre&Solidaire, France.
- Traité général de viticulture, Ampélographie. P. Viala and V. Vermorel, 1901-1909, Ed. Masson, Paris, France.
Description of clones approved in France
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
470  Tarn-et-Garonne  ENTAV  very low  low  high  high
 1976  Côtes-du-Rhône
Languedoc
Provence
 low  high  medium to high  high
 18.83 ha  medium  low    aromatic, concentrated wines with good tannic structure
Clone presenting very few blight symptoms. Low production level, especially under limiting conditions. High vigor and drooping growth. Fairly loose grape clusters. Clone appreciated for the grape cluster configuration, its low production potential and the color and quality of the wines produced.
471  Drôme  ENTAV  medium to high  medium to high  medium to high  medium to high
 1976  Côtes-du-Rhône
Languedoc
Provence
 medium  high  medium  medium to high
 12.64 ha  medium  medium    round wines with good tannic structure on the palate
Clone generally presenting few blight symptoms. Less compact grape clusters. Good maturity despite production level.
524  Drôme  ENTAV  high  high  medium  
 1976  Côtes-du-Rhône
Languedoc
Provence
 high    medium  
 7.37 ha  medium to high  medium    distinctive wines of the vine variety
Clone presenting very few blight symptoms. Less compact grape clusters.
747  Tarn-et-Garonne  ENTAV  medium to high  high  low to medium  low to medium
 1981  Côtes-du-Rhône
Languedoc
Sud-Ouest
 medium to high    medium  low to medium
 16.57 ha  high      distinctive wines of the vine variety
Clone presenting very few blight symptoms
1140  Drôme  CA26 - IFV  medium to high  medium to low  high  medium to high
 2012  Côtes-du-Rhône  low  medium  medium  high
   low  medium to low    Wines appreciated for their olfactory quality and the balance on the palate.
Clone presenting very few blight symptoms. Appreciated for the quality of the wines produced.
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
1141  Rhône  CA26 - IFV  medium to low  low  high  medium to high
 2012  Côtes-du-Rhône  low  medium  medium  high
   low  medium to low    Wines appreciated for their olfactory quality and the balance on the palate.
Clone presenting very few blight symptoms. Appreciated for the quality of the wines produced.
1188  Rhône  CA26 - IFV  high  medium  high  medium to high
 2012  Côtes-du-Rhône  low  medium  medium  high
   low  medium to low    Wines appreciated for their olfactory quality and the balance on the palate.
Clone presenting very few blight symptoms. Appreciated for the quality of the wines produced.