Pinot noir N
Name of vine variety in France
Pinot noir
Origin
This variety is originally from Burgundy.
Synonymy
There is no officially recognized synonym in France for this variety. In the European Union, Pinot noir can officially be called by other names: Blauer Burgunder  (Austria), Blauer Spätburgunder (Germany), Modri pinot (Slovenia), Pinot Nero (Italy), Pinot crni (Croatia) and Rulandské modré  (Czech republic, Slovakia).
Regulations
In France, Pinot noir is officially listed in the "Catalogue of vine varieties" on the A list and classified. This variety is also listed in the catalogues of otherMember States of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.
Use
Wine grape variety.
Evolution of area under vines in France
1958 1968 1979 1988 1998 2008 2018
ha 8535 11876 17210 21971 25871 28006 36727
Description
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot with a medium to high density of prostate hairs,
- the green or yellow young leaves,
- the shoots with red-striped internodes,
- the dark or very dark green adult leaves, entire or with three or five lobes, with a slightly open or closed petiole sinus, with lobes facing each other towards the lower side of the blade in a coxcomb shape, short teeth, a twisted, strongly blistered leaf blade, and on the lower side of the leaves, a low density of prostate hairs,
- the round-shaped or slightly ellipsoid berries.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 135 225 239 182 188 240 238 216 239
Allel 2 149 236 243 186 194 246 248 235 271
Phenology
Bud burst: 2 days after Chasselas.
Grape maturity: early-season, half a week to 1 week after Chasselas
Suitability for cultivation and agronomic production
Pinot noir is particularly adapted to temperate climate zones. This variety gives best results in clay-limestone terroirs. In hot climates, grape maturation is very fast. It is sensitive to heat and the berries tend to shrivel quickly when over ripe. Pinot noir is generally trained. It expresses its fulfilment when its vigor is low to moderate and yields are limited. This variety, which requires careful debudding tends to produce a large number of grappillons.
Sensitivity to diseases and pests
Pinot noir is a delicate variety, sensitive to the main diseases, particularly downy mildew, rotbrenner, grey rot (on clusters and leaves), and leafhoppers.
Technological potential
The bunches and berries are very small to small in size. Pinot noir, under favorable conditions, can produce extremely high quality red wines, combining finesse, intensity and aromatic complexity, that are suited for ageing. The sugar accumulation potential is high for a moderate acidity (sometimes insufficient when ripe) and a color which is often not very intense, but can be maintained over time. Pinot noir also makes quality base wines for the production of sparkling wines.
Clonal selection in France
The 47 certified Pinot noir clones carry the numbers 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 162, 163, 164, 165, 236, 292, 372, 373, 374, 375, 386, 388, 389, 459, 460, 461, 462, 521, 528, 583, 617, 665, 666, 667, 668, 743, 777, 778, 779, 780, 792, 828, 829, 870, 871, 872, 927, 943, 1184, 1185, 1196 and 1197. Conservatories-collections, planted in Alsace, Burgundy (Côte d’Or and Saône-et-Loire) and in Champagne between 1971 and 1995, gather almost 800 clones.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages et de leurs synonymes. P. Galet, 2015, Ed. Libre&Solidaire, France.
- Traité général de viticulture, Ampélographie. P. Viala and V. Vermorel, 1901-1909, Ed. Masson, Paris, France.
Description of clones approved in France
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
111  Côte-d'Or  INRA  medium  medium  medium  
 1971  Bourgogne  medium      
     medium to high    fairly tannic structured wines
Irregular production. Slightly more susceptible to grey rot clone.
112  Côte-d'Or  ENTAV        
 1971          
         
Small distribution clone
113  Côte-d'Or  INRA  medium  medium  medium  
 1971  Bourgogne  medium      
 1.42 ha        balanced wines with not very noticeable tannins
Sometimes irregular production level
114  Côte-d'Or  INRA  medium  medium  medium to high  medium to high
 1971  Bourgogne  low to medium    medium  medium
 1.81 ha  medium      aromatic, distinctive and fairly tannic wines
Sometimes irregular clones with an interesting qualitative potential when blended
115  Côte-d'Or  INRA  low to medium  medium  medium to high  medium
 1971  Bourgogne
Languedoc
 low to medium    low to medium  medium to high
 12.64 ha  medium      distinctive, complex wines with good tannic structure
Clone appreciated for its steady production, its agronomic characteristics and the quality of the wines produced. Good capacity for making wines with ageing potential.
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
162  Alsace  INRA  medium  medium  medium  
 1972  Alsace  low to medium      
 0.98 ha        adapted to making light red or rosé wines
163  Côte-d'Or  INRA        
 1972          
         
Small distribution clone
164  Côte-d'Or  INRA        
 1972          
         
Small distribution clone
165  Côte-d'Or  INRA  medium  medium  medium  
 1972  Bourgogne  medium      
 0.39 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
236  Côte-d'Or  ENTAV  high  high  low  low to medium
 1973  Bourgogne
Champagne
 medium to high    high  low to medium
 3.51 ha  medium  medium to high    recommended for making sparkling wines
Clone considered as « fairly distinctive » in Champagne
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
292  Jura  ENTAV  medium to high  high  low to medium  
 1973  Bourgogne
Champagne
 high      
 3.96 ha        medium bodied red wines
Can be used for making sparkling wines, but considered « not distinctive » in Champagne.
372  Jura  ENTAV        
 1975          
         
Small distribution clone
373  Jura  ENTAV        
 1975          
         
Small distribution clone
374  Jura  ENTAV        
 1975          
         
Small distribution clone
375  Saône-et-Loire  ENTAV  medium to high  high  low to medium  low to medium
 1975  Bourgogne
Champagne
Languedoc
 medium to high  medium    medium
 3.92 ha  medium      supple and fruity red wines
Yield need to be controlled. Can be used for making sparkling wines.
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
386  Marne  ENTAV  high  medium to high  low to medium  medium
 1975  Bourgogne
Champagne
Languedoc
 medium to high    medium to high  medium
 4.62 ha  medium to high      adapted to making sparkling wines
Fleshy berries. Clone considered as « distinctive » in Champagne.
388  Marne  ENTAV  high  medium to high  low  
 1975  Champagne  high      
 2.17 ha  high      adapted to making sparkling wines
Clone considered « not distinctive » in Champagne.
389  Marne  ENTAV  high  medium to high  low  
 1975  Champagne  high      
 2.06 ha  high      adapted to making sparkling wines
Clone considered « not distinctive » in Champagne.
459  Jura  ENTAV  medium to high  high  medium  medium
 1976  Bourgogne
Languedoc
 high    medium  medium to high
 2.65 ha  medium to high      wines with balanced and tannic structure
Satisfactory quality is yield is controlled.
460  Jura  ENTAV        
 1976          
         
Small distribution clone
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
461  Côte-d'Or  ENTAV        
 1976          
         
Small distribution clone
462  Côte-d'Or  ENTAV        
 1976          
         
Small distribution clone
521  Marne  ENTAV  medium to high  medium to high  medium  
 1976  Champagne  medium to high      
 1.59 ha        adapted to making sparkling wines
Clone considered as « distinctive » in Champagne
528  Non précisée  ENTAV        
 1976          
         
Small distribution clone
583  Côte-d'Or  ENTAV  medium to high  medium  medium  medium to high
 1978  Bourgogne
Languedoc
 low to medium  medium to high  medium  low to medium
 0.28 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
«pinot droit» type upright plant growth. Good behaviour in the Languedoc region.
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
617  Non précisée  ENTAV        
 1979          
         
Small distribution clone
665  Marne  ENTAV  high  high  low  
 1980  Champagne  high      
 1.37 ha    medium to high    adapted to making sparkling wines
Clone considered as « fairly distinctive » in Champagne
666  Marne  ENTAV  high  high  low  
 1980  Champagne  high      
 1.80 ha        adapted to making sparkling wines
Clone considered as « fairly distinctive » in Champagne
667  Côte-d'Or  ENTAV  low to medium  medium  medium to high  medium
 1980  Bourgogne  low to medium    medium  medium
 3.54 ha  medium      refined and aromatic wines with good tannic structure
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced. Good aptitude for making wines with ageing potential.
668  Marne  ENTAV  high  medium to high  low  
 1980  Champagne  high      
 0.74 ha  high      adapted for making sparkling wines
Clone considered « not distinctive » in Champagne
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
743  Marne  ENTAV  high  high  medium  
 1981  Champagne  high      
 1.23 ha        adapted for making sparkling wines
Clone considered « not distinctive » in Champagne
777  Côte-d'Or  ENTAV  medium  low  high  medium to high
 1981  Bourgogne
Languedoc
 low    low to medium  medium to high
 8.27 ha  low to medium      distinctive, powerful and aromatic wines with good tannic structure
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics, the quality and the color of the wines produced. Good aptitude for making wines with ageing potential.
778  Côte-d'Or  ENTAV        
 1981          
         
Small distribution clone
779  Cher  ENTAV  medium to high  medium  medium to high  
 1981  Champagne  low to medium      
 0.77 ha        adapted to making sparkling wines
Clone considered as « distinctive » in Champagne
780  Marne  ENTAV  high  medium to high  low  
 1981  Champagne  high      
 0.39 ha  high      adapted to making sparkling wines
Clone considered as « distinctive » in Champagne
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
792  Marne  ENTAV  medium to high  medium to high  medium  
 1984  Champagne  medium to high      
 1.38 ha        adapted to making sparkling wines
Clone considered as « distinctive » in Champagne
828  Côte-d'Or  ENTAV  medium  low  high  medium to high
 1985  Bourgogne  low    medium  medium to high
 3.69 ha  low to medium      distinctive, aromatic, round and balanced wines with good tannic structure
Clone carrier of leaf roll virus2 variant Red Globe. Appreciated for its agronomic characteristics, the quality and the color of wines produced. Good aptitude for making wines with ageing potential
829  Saône-et-Loire  ENTAV  high  high  low  
 1985  Bourgogne  medium to high      
 0.10 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
870  Marne  ENTAV  medium to high  medium to high  medium  
 1986  Champagne  medium to high      
 0.99 ha        adapted to making sparkling wines
Clone considered «distinctive» in Champagne
871  Marne  ENTAV  medium to high  high  low  
 1988  Champagne  high      
 0.95 ha        adapted to making sparkling wines
Clone considered «distinctive» in Champagne
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
872  Marne  ENTAV  medium to high  medium to high  medium  
 1989  Champagne  medium to high      
 0.64 ha        adapted to making sparkling wines
Clone considered «distinctive» in Champagne
927  Cher  ENTAV  medium to high  medium  medium to high  
 1988  Champagne  low to medium      
 0.57 ha        adapted to making sparkling wines
Clone considered «distinctive» in Champagne
943  Côte-d'Or  ENTAV  medium  low  high  medium to high
 1989  Bourgogne  low    low to medium  medium to high
 0.72 ha  low to medium      colorful and concentrated wines
More drooping plant growth. Use with care due to particular behaviour depending on the vintage.
1184  Saône-et-Loire  CA71 - IFV  low to medium  medium  medium to high  medium to high
 2012  Bourgogne  low    medium  medium to high
   medium  medium    wines appreciated for their color and mouth structure
Lower production level. Color intensity higher than average
1185  Saône-et-Loire  CA71 - IFV  medium to high  low  medium to high  high
 2012  Bourgogne  low    medium  medium to high
   low  low    wines appreciated for their color, aromatic complexity and mouth feel quality
Lower production level. Color intensity higher than average
Clone susceptible to millerandage
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
1196  Saône-et-Loire  CA71 - IFV  medium to high  medium  high  high
 2013  Bourgogne  medium    medium  
   medium  low    structured wines with complex and distinctive Pinot Noir aromas
Lower production level. Color intensity higher than average
Clone slightly susceptible to millerandage but less than 1185.
1197  Saône-et-Loire  CA71 - IFV  medium  medium  high  medium to high
 2013  Bourgogne  medium to high    medium  
   medium  medium  high  wines appreciated for their olfactory intensity and tannin suppleness.
Lower production level. Olfactory intensity higher than average
Upright growth