Meunier N
Name of vine variety in France
Meunier
Origin
This variety is a mutation of Pinot, particularly focusing on villosity.
Synonymy
There is no officially recognized synonym in France for this variety. In the European Union, Meunier can officially be called by other names: Mlynarka (Czech Republic), Müllerrebe (Germany), Pinot Meunier (Belgium, Czech Republic, Spain) and Schwarzriesling (Austria).
Regulations
In France, Meunier is officially listed in the "Catalogue of vine varieties" on the A list and classified. This variety is also listed in the catalogues of other Member States of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Spain.
Use
Wine grape variety.
Evolution of area under vines in France
1958 1968 1979 1988 1998 2008 2018
ha 5603 7739 10572 11115 10961 10737 12054
Description
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot with a very high density of prostate hairs,
- the green young leaves,
- the shoots with red-striped or red internodes and a medium to high density of prostate hairs,
- the circular adult leaves, with five lobes, deep lateral sinuses with often a tooth inside, a slightly open petiole sinus, a moderate anthocyanin coloration of veins, on the upper side of the leaf blade, a low to medium density of prostate hairs, and the lower side of the leaves, a medium density of prostate hairs,
- the round-shaped or broad ellipsoid berries.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 126 225 239 182 188 240 238 216 239
Allel 2 135 236 243 186 194 246 248 235 271
Phenology
Bud burst: 3 days after Chasselas.
Grape maturity: early-season, half a week after Chasselas.
Suitability for cultivation and agronomic production
This variety is rather productive and is resistant to winter frosts. Its fruitfulness is also fairly good following a spring frost. Meunier has a tendency to grow many off shoots and suckers. This variety is well suited for limestone terroirs and is not very sensitive to chlorosis.
Sensitivity to diseases and pests
Meunier is not very sensitive to phomopsis, powdery mildew and downy mildew. On the other hand, it is susceptible to grape moths and grey rot.
Technological potential
The bunches are small and the berries very small. This variety is used especially for the production of sparkling wines. It maked moderately acidic wines which evolve quickly.
Clonal selection in France
The fourteen certified Meunier clones carry the numbers 458, 791, 817, 818, 864, 865, 900, 901, 916, 924, 925, 977, 978 and 983. A conservatory of almost 30 clones was planted in Alsace in 1984. An other conservatory of 94 clones has been planted in the wine-growing region of Champagne since 1995.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages et de leurs synonymes. P. Galet, 2015, Ed. Libre&Solidaire, France.
- Traité général de viticulture, Ampélographie. P. Viala and V. Vermorel, 1901-1909, Ed. Masson, Paris, France.
Description of clones approved in France
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
458  Marne  ENTAV  low to medium  irregular  high  
 1975  Champagne  low      
         distinctive wines
Frequent reverse mutations causing the possible disappearance of «Meunier» character
791  Marne  ENTAV  high  high  low  
 1984  Champagne  high  medium    
 1.05 ha        good capacity for producing base wines
Earlier maturity clone with leaves with more lobes
817  Marne  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium  
 1985  Champagne  medium  high    
 1.75 ha        good capacity for producing base wines
Earlier clone
818  Marne  ENTAV  medium  medium to high  medium  
 1985  Champagne  high      
 1.26 ha    medium to high    good capacity for producing base wines
Earlier clone
864  Marne  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium  
 1985  Champagne  medium      
 0.63 ha        good capacity for producing base wines
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
865  Marne  ENTAV  high  medium  high  
 1986  Champagne  low      
 1.70 ha        good capacity for producing base wines
900  Aisne  ENTAV  medium  medium  high  
 1987  Champagne  medium      
 1.58 ha    medium to high    good capacity for producing base wines
Frequent reverse mutations causing the possible disappearance of «Meunier» character
901  Loiret  INRA  medium    high  
 1987  Val-de-Loire        
         used for making rosé wines
916  Loiret  INRA  medium    high  
 1987  Val-de-Loire        
         used for making rosé wines
924  Marne  ENTAV  medium  medium  high  
 1988  Champagne  medium  medium    
 2.40 ha    medium to high    good capacity for producing base wines
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
925  Aube  INRA  medium  high  low  
 1988  Val-de-Loire  high      
 0.65 ha        good capacity for producing base wines
977  Marne  ENTAV  high  medium  high  
 1991  Champagne  low  high    
 0.89 ha        good capacity for producing base wines
Later maturity clone
978  Marne  ENTAV  medium  medium to high  medium  
 1991  Champagne  medium      
 0.88 ha        good capacity for producing base wines
983  Marne  ENTAV  high  high  low  
 1992  Champagne  high      
 0.16 ha        good capacity for producing base wines
Frequent reverse mutations causing the possible disappearance of «Meunier» character