Macabeu B
Name of vine variety in France
Macabeu
Origin
This variety is originally from Spain, probably from Catalonia. Based on published genetic analyses, Macabeu would be the result of crossbreeding Gibi and Brustiano faux.
Synonymy
There is no officially recognized synonym in France for this variety. In the European Union, Macabeu can officially be called by other names: Macabeo (Spain), Maccabeau (Greece) and Viura (Spain).
Regulations
In France, Macabeu is officially listed in the "Catalogue of vine varieties" on the A list and classified. This variety is also listed in the catalogues of other Member States of the European Union: Greece and Spain.
Use
Wine grape variety.
Evolution of area under vines in France
1958 1968 1979 1988 1998 2008 2018
ha 4429 5975 7077 7621 5771 3536 1636
Description
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot with a very high density of prostate hairs,
- the shoots with internodes which are often flattened and fasciated,
- the large light green adult leaves with five lobes, a slightly open or closed petiole sinus, no anthocyanin coloration of veins, a shiny involute on the edges leaf blade, and on the lower side of the leaves, a high density of prostate hairs,
- the round-shaped berries.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 131 232 239 186 188 244 238 235 249
Allel 2 143 234 239 191 188 258 240 257 255
Phenology
Bud burst: 9 days after Chasselas.
Grape maturity: late-season, 4 weeks after Chasselas.
Suitability for cultivation and agronomic production
Macabeu is a productive, vigorous variety with an erect bearing and must be pruned short. It is sensitive to the wind. Planting in cool and humid areas, along with too dry soil should be avoided as the variety can be subject to apoplexy and early leaf drop.
Sensitivity to diseases and pests
Macabeu is rather sensitive to mites, grey rot and bacterial necrosis.
Technological potential
The bunches are very large and the berries medium to large in size. Depending on growing conditions, Macabeu can be used to produce sparkling wines, sweet wines or dry white wine. The dry white wines and sparkling wines are light, pleasant but are often lacking acidity and a bit of finesse. The aromas (sometimes with fennel notes) are also not very intense.
Clonal selection in France
The ten certified Macabeu clones carry the numbers 630, 631, 632, 633, 706, 735, 736, 737, 789 and 1025. A conservatory of sixty or so clones was planted in the French department of Pyrénées-Orientales between 1979 and 1980. An other conservatory of 60 clones was planted in the French department of Aude in 2010.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages et de leurs synonymes. P. Galet, 2015, Ed. Libre&Solidaire, France.
- Traité général de viticulture, Ampélographie. P. Viala and V. Vermorel, 1901-1909, Ed. Masson, Paris, France.
Description of clones approved in France
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
630  Pyrénées-Orientales  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium to high  
 1979  Roussillon  medium    medium to high  
 0.73 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
631  Pyrénées-Orientales  ENTAV  low  medium  medium  
 1979  Roussillon  medium      
 0.73 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
632  Pyrénées-Orientales  ENTAV  medium  medium  irrégulière  
 1979  Roussillon  medium      
 0.15 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
633  Pyrénées-Orientales  ENTAV  medium to high  medium  high  
 1979  Roussillon  medium      
 0.19 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
706  Pyrénées-Orientales  ENTAV      low to medium  
 1980  Roussillon  medium      
 0.26 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
735  Pyrénées-Orientales  INRA  medium  medium  medium to high  
 1981  Aude
Roussillon
 medium      
 0.53 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
736  Pyrénées-Orientales  INRA  medium  medium  medium  
 1981  Aude
Roussillon
 medium      
 0.18 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
737  Pyrénées-Orientales  INRA  medium  medium  medium  
 1981  Aude
Roussillon
 medium      
         distinctive wines of the vine variety
789  Pyrénées-Orientales  ENTAV  medium to high  high  low  
 1984  Roussillon  high      
 0.45 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
1025  Pyrénées-Orientales  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium  
 1995  Roussillon  medium    medium  
         distinctive wines of the vine variety