Grenache N
Name of vine variety in France
Grenache
Origin
This variety was originally from Spain and was introduced to France in the Middle Ages.
Synonymy
There is no officially recognized synonym for this variety in France. In the European Union, Grenache can officially be called by other names: Alicante (Italy), Cannonau (Italy), Tocai rosso (Italy), Garnacha Tinta (Spain), Grenache noir (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Croatia) and Grenache rouge (Greece).
Regulations
In France, Grenache is officially listed in the "Catalogue of vine varieties" on the A list and classified. This variety is also listed in the catalogues of other Member States of the European Union: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain.
Use
Wine grape variety.
Evolution of area under vines in France
1958 1968 1979 1988 1998 2008 2018
ha 24886 51931 77669 86715 91619 98644 82966
Description
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot with a low density of prostate hairs,
- the green and shiny young leaves,
- the shoots with green internoodes,
- the adult leaves with teeth with straight sides, no anthocyanin coloration of veins and petioles, a very twisted smooth leaf blade, and on the lower side of the leaves, no or a very low density of erect and prostate hairs,
- the yellow woody shoots,
- the round-shaped berries.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 135 223 239 191 188 258 240 243 239
Allel 2 143 238 243 191 188 258 254 243 249
Phenology
Bud burst: 6 days after Chasselas.
Grape maturity: late-season, 4 weeks after Chasselas.
Suitability for cultivation and agronomic production
This variety is very vigorous (strong vine trunks), is sometimes sensitive to coulure and can have issues with lignification. Grenache has an erect bearing and must be pruned short in gobelet or cordon. It easily shows symptoms of magnesium deficiency. It is better adapted to slightly acidic, gravel or stony (pebble) terroirs rather than to very limestone white soil.
Sensitivity to diseases and pests
This variety is very sensitive to downy mildew and phomopsis and is rather sensitive to bacterial necrosis, grey rot and vine moths. On the other hand, it is not very susceptible to mites and resists well against, ungrafted, Meloidogyne arenaria nematodes in the sands along the coast.
Technological potential
Grenache's bunches are medium to large and the berries are medium in size. It has a very high sugar accumulation potential but the color decreases quickly as the yields increase. Acidity is generally low. Grenache produces sweet wines and very structured and aromatic ageing wines, provided that they are planted in quality terroirs. The yield must be perfectly managed to obtain a decent color.
Clonal selection in France
The twenty-six Grenache clones carry the numbers 70, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 224, 287, 362, 363, 432, 433, 434, 435, 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 814, 1064, 1065, 1212, 1270, 1271 and 1272. A conservatory of more than 360 clones was planted in the Côtes du Rhône in 1998.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages et de leurs synonymes. P. Galet, 2015, Ed. Libre&Solidaire, France.
- Traité général de viticulture, Ampélographie. P. Viala and V. Vermorel, 1901-1909, Ed. Masson, Paris, France.
Description of clones approved in France
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
70  Vaucluse  ENTAV  medium to high  high  medium to high  medium
 1971  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium to high    medium  low to medium
 30.60 ha  medium      distinctive wines of the vine variety but sometimes lacking in structure
Productive clone, steady in sugar and polyphenol contents is production is controlled
134  Aude  INRA  high  high  low  low to medium
 1972  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium to high  high    low to medium
 6.94 ha  medium      colorful and structures wines
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced
135  Aude  INRA  low to medium  medium  medium to high  medium to high
 1972  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium  medium    medium to high
 12.59 ha  medium      Colorful and structures wines
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced
136  Aude  INRA  medium to high  medium  high  medium to high
 1972  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 low to medium  medium    medium to high
 22.85 ha  low to medium      balanced, colorful and well-structured wines
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced
137  Aude  INRA  low to medium  medium  low  low to medium
 1972  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium      low to medium
 2.10 ha  medium      wines sometimes lacking concentration
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
139  Aude  INRA  low to medium  medium  medium  
 1972  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium      
 4.51 ha  low to medium      distinctive wines of the vine variety
Clone carrier of leaf roll virus2. Irregular behaviour depending on vintage and environment.
224  Vaucluse  ENTAV  medium  high  medium  low to medium
 1973  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 high      medium
 15.94 ha  medium      distinctive wines of the vine variety but sometimes lacking structure
Very productive clone
287  Vaucluse  ENTAV  medium to high  high  low to medium  low to medium
 1973  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium to high      medium
 3.12 ha  medium      distinctive wines of the vine variety
362  Vaucluse  ENTAV  low to medium  low  high  medium to high
 1975  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 low      medium to high
 18.33 ha  low      balanced, colorful and well-structured wines
Less compact grape clusters. Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced. Tends to be more susceptible to coulure during the years favoring this phenomenon.
363  Vaucluse  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium  medium to high
 1975  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium to high      medium
 4.59 ha  medium      Distinctive wines of the vine variety
Clone carrier of leaf roll virus2. Irregular behaviour depending on vintage and environment conditions.
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
432  Vaucluse  ENTAV  medium to high  medium  low to medium  
 1976  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium  high    
         distinctive wines of the vine variety
Irregular behavior depending on vintage and environment conditions
433  Vaucluse  ENTAV  medium to high  medium  medium to high  medium to high
 1976  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium      medium to high
 1.52 ha  medium      distinctive wines of the vine variety
434  Vaucluse  ENTAV  medium to high  medium to high  medium to high  medium
 1976  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium  high    medium to high
 3.87 ha  medium      distinctive wines of the vine variety
435  Vaucluse  ENTAV  medium to high  medium  high  medium to high
 1976  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 low to medium      medium to high
 10.83 ha  low to medium      balanced, colorful and well-structured wines
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced
513  Non précisée  ENTAV  low  low  high  medium to high
 1976  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 low to medium      medium to high
 2.17 ha        balanced and well-structured wines
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced. Tends to be more susceptible to coulure during the years favoring this phenomenon.
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
514  Ardèche  ENTAV  low to medium  medium  medium to high  
 1976  Vallée-du-Rhône  medium      
         Distinctive wines of the vine variety
Irregular behavior depending on vintage and environment conditions
515  Ardèche  ENTAV  medium to high  medium to high  medium to high  
 1976  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium  medium    
 1.25 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
516  Hérault  ENTAV  medium  medium to high  medium  medium
 1976  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium to high      medium
 10.65 ha  medium to high      distinctive wines of the vine variety
517  Hérault  ENTAV  medium  medium to high  low to medium  
 1976  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
   medium to high    
         distinctive wines of the vine variety
814  Espagne  ENTAV  high  high  low  low to medium
 1985  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 high      low to medium
 0.35 ha  medium to high      distinctive wines of the vine variety but sometimes lacking structure
Very productive clone
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
1064  Espagne  CA 84 - ENTAV  low  low  medium to high  medium to high
 2002  Vallée-du-Rhône  low to medium    medium  medium
 0.21 ha  medium      balanced wines with good tannic structure
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced
1065  Espagne  CA 84 - ENTAV  high  low to high  high  medium to high
 2002  Vallée-du-Rhône  low    low to medium  medium
 0.44 ha  medium to high      balanced wines with good tannic structure
Interesting clone for smaller and looser than average grape clusters; strong alternating production levels if affected by coulure. Wines appreciated in wine tastings.
1212  Vaucluse  CA 84 - IFV  high  low  low to medium  high
 2014  Vallée-du-Rhône  low  medium  low to medium  medium to high
   very lower  low    balanced wines, colorful and well-structured
Clone with small berries and loose clusters, low susceptibility to gray rot. Later harvest and steady production. Colorful and sought-after for wine tasting
1270  Espagne  Pépinières Mercier - IFV        
 2018          
         
1271  Vaucluse  Pépinières Mercier - IFV        
 2018          
         
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
1272  Espagne  Pépinières Mercier - IFV        
 2018