Grenache N
Name of vine variety in France
Grenache
Origin
This variety was originally Spanish and was introduced to France in the Middle ages.
Synonymy
There is no officially recognized synonym for this variety in France.in the European Union, Grenache N can officially be called by other names: Alicante (Italy, Bulgaria), Alikante (Bulgaria), Cannonau (Italy, Malta), Cannonao (Italy), Tocai rosso (Italy), Garnacha Tinta (Spain, Italy), Gironet (Spain), Granaccia (Italy), Grenache noir (Cyprus, Bulgaria), Grenache rouge (Greece), Guarnaccia (Italy), Gamay (under certain conditions in Italy), Lladoner (Spain).
Regulations
In France, Grenache N is officially listed in the "Catalogue of vine varieties".

This variety is likewise listed in the Catalogues of other European Union member countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Spain, Greece, Italy, Malta and Portugal.
Use
Wine vine variety
Evolution of area under vines in France
1958 1968 1979 1988 1998 2008 2016
ha 24886 51931 77669 86715 91619 98644 82796
Description
Identification signs include:
- the tips of the young shoot have a thin coat of flat-lying hair,
-the young leaves are green and shiny,
- the shoots have green internoodes,
- adult leaves have teeth with straight sides; leaf blade is very jagged, smooth and the underside has an absence of or a very thin coat of flat-lying or upright hairs,
- the branches are yellow and the berries are round-shaped.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 135 223 239 191 188 258 240 243 239
Allel 2 143 238 243 191 188 258 254 243 249
Phenology
Bud burst: 6 days after Chasselas.Grape maturity: period III, 4 weeks after Chasselas.
Suitability for cultivation and agronomic production
This variety is very vigorous (strong tree trunk) and sometimes sensitive to shot berries and difficulties with  lignification; growth is upright and must be short pruned in gobelet or cordon under trellis. It easily displays symptoms of magnesium deficiency. It is better adapted to slightly acidic, gravel or stony (pebble) terroirs rather than to very limestone white soil.
Sensitivity to diseases and pests
This variety is very sensitive to downy mildew and phomopsis and and rather sensitive to bacterial necrosis, grey rot and vine moths. On the other hand, it is not very sensitive to mites and resists well against, ungrafted, to Meloidogyne arenaria nematodes in the sands along the coast.
Technological potential
Grenache N clusters are moderate to large size with moderate-size berries. There is very high sugar accumulation potential but the color decreases as the yields increase. Acidity is generally low. Grenache N produces natural sweet wine and very structured and aromatic ageing wines, provided that they are planted in quality terroirs. The yield must be perfectly managed to obtain the proper color.
Clonal selection in France
There are 22 Grenache N clones which carry the numbers 70, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 224, 287, 362, 363, 432, 433, 434, 435, 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 814, 1064 and 1065. A conservatory with more than 360 clones was set up in the Côtes du Rhône in 1998.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi.
- Documentation interne du Domaine de Vassal. 1949-2011, INRA, Marseillan-plage.
- Cépages et vignobles de France, tome 2. P. Galet, 1990, Ed. Dehan, Montpellier.
- Ampélographie. P. Viala et V. Vermorel, 1902-1910, Ed. Masson, Paris.
Description of clones approved in France
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
70  Vaucluse  ENTAV  medium to high  high  medium to high  medium
 1971  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium to high    medium  low to medium
 30.60 ha  medium      distinctive wines of the vine variety but sometimes lacking in structure
Productive clone, steady in sugar and polyphenol contents is production is controlled
134  Aude  INRA  high  high  low  low to medium
 1972  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium to high  high    low to medium
 6.94 ha  medium      colorful and structures wines
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced
135  Aude  INRA  low to medium  medium  medium to high  medium to high
 1972  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium  medium    medium to high
 12.59 ha  medium      Colorful and structures wines
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced
136  Aude  INRA  medium to high  medium  high  medium to high
 1972  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 low to medium  medium    medium to high
 22.85 ha  low to medium      balanced, colorful and well-structured wines
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced
137  Aude  INRA  low to medium  medium  low  low to medium
 1972  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium      low to medium
 2.10 ha  medium      wines sometimes lacking concentration
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
139  Aude  INRA  low to medium  medium  medium  
 1972  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium      
 4.51 ha  low to medium      distinctive wines of the vine variety
Clone carrier of leaf roll virus2. Irregular behaviour depending on vintage and environment.
224  Vaucluse  ENTAV  medium  high  medium  low to medium
 1973  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 high      medium
 15.94 ha  medium      distinctive wines of the vine variety but sometimes lacking structure
Very productive clone
287  Vaucluse  ENTAV  medium to high  high  low to medium  low to medium
 1973  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium to high      medium
 3.12 ha  medium      distinctive wines of the vine variety
362  Vaucluse  ENTAV  low to medium  low  high  medium to high
 1975  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 low      medium to high
 18.33 ha  low      balanced, colorful and well-structured wines
Less compact grape clusters. Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced. Tends to be more susceptible to coulure during the years favoring this phenomenon.
363  Vaucluse  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium  medium to high
 1975  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium to high      medium
 4.59 ha  medium      Distinctive wines of the vine variety
Clone carrier of leaf roll virus2. Irregular behaviour depending on vintage and environment conditions.
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
432  Vaucluse  ENTAV  medium to high  medium  low to medium  
 1976  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium  high    
         distinctive wines of the vine variety
Irregular behavior depending on vintage and environment conditions
433  Vaucluse  ENTAV  medium to high  medium  medium to high  medium to high
 1976  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium      medium to high
 1.52 ha  medium      distinctive wines of the vine variety
434  Vaucluse  ENTAV  medium to high  medium to high  medium to high  medium
 1976  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium  high    medium to high
 3.87 ha  medium      distinctive wines of the vine variety
435  Vaucluse  ENTAV  medium to high  medium  high  medium to high
 1976  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 low to medium      medium to high
 10.83 ha  low to medium      balanced, colorful and well-structured wines
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced
513  Non précisée  ENTAV  low  low  high  medium to high
 1976  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 low to medium      medium to high
 2.17 ha        balanced and well-structured wines
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced. Tends to be more susceptible to coulure during the years favoring this phenomenon.
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
514  Ardèche  ENTAV  low to medium  medium  medium to high  
 1976  Vallée-du-Rhône  medium      
         Distinctive wines of the vine variety
Irregular behavior depending on vintage and environment conditions
515  Ardèche  ENTAV  medium to high  medium to high  medium to high  
 1976  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium  medium    
 1.25 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
516  Hérault  ENTAV  medium  medium to high  medium  medium
 1976  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 medium to high      medium
 10.65 ha  medium to high      distinctive wines of the vine variety
517  Hérault  ENTAV  medium  medium to high  low to medium  
 1976  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
   medium to high    
         distinctive wines of the vine variety
814  Espagne  ENTAV  high  high  low  low to medium
 1985  Languedoc-Roussillon
Vallée-du-Rhône
 high      low to medium
 0.35 ha  medium to high      distinctive wines of the vine variety but sometimes lacking structure
Very productive clone
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
1064  Espagne  CA 84 - ENTAV  low  low  medium to high  medium to high
 2002  Vallée-du-Rhône  low to medium    medium  medium
 0.21 ha  medium      balanced wines with good tannic structure
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced
1065  Espagne  CA 84 - ENTAV  high  low to high  high  medium to high
 2002  Vallée-du-Rhône  low    low to medium  medium
 0.44 ha  medium to high      balanced wines with good tannic structure
Interesting clone for smaller and looser than average grape clusters; strong alternating production levels if affected by coulure. Wines appreciated in wine tastings.
1212  Vaucluse  CA 84 - IFV  high  low  low to medium  high
 2014  Vallée-du-Rhône  low  medium  low to medium  medium to high
   very lower  low    balanced wines, colorful and well-structured
Clone with small berries and loose clusters, low susceptibility to gray rot. Later harvest and steady production. Colorful and sought-after for wine tasting
1270  Espagne  Pépinières Mercier - IFV  moyenne  inférieur  supérieure  moyen à supérieur
 2018  Côtes-du-Rhône  inférieur  inférieure  inférieure  moyenne à supérieure
   inférieure à moyenne  inférieure à moyenne  moyenne à supérieure  vins aromatiques avec une bonne structure tannique
Niveau de production inférieur avec grappes petites et plutôt lâches. Port très érigé et bonne tolérance au Botrytis. Vins appréciés pour leur note olfactive et leur qualité en bouche grâce à une bonne structure tannique.
1271  Vaucluse  Pépinières Mercier - IFV  moyenne  inférieur  moyenne à supérieure  moyen
 2018  Côtes-du-Rhône  inférieur à moyen  inférieure  moyenne  moyenne à supérieure
   inférieure à moyenne  inférieure à moyenne  supérieure  vins aromatiques et bien équilibrés
Production régulière avec grappes un peu plus grosses. Vins équilibrés possédant un taux d'alcool un peu inférieur et une bonne acidité. Appréciés en dégustation.
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
1272  Italie  Pépinières Mercier - IFV  moyenne  inférieur  supérieure  supérieur
 2018  Côtes-du-Rhône  inférieur  inférieure  moyenne  moyenne à supérieure
   inférieure à moyenne  inférieure à moyenne  moyenne à supérieure  vins aromatiques et colorés
Niveau de production inférieur avec grappes plus petites. Port très érigé et bonne tolérance au Botrytis. Vins les plus colorés et appréciés pour leur qualité en bouche.