Chenin B
Name of vine variety in France
Chenin
Origin
This variety is originally from the Loire Valley and seemingly from Anjou.
Synonymy
There is no officially recognized synonym for this variety in France. In Bulagria, Chenin can officially be designated as "Shanin".
Regulations
In France, Chenin is officially listed in the "Catalogue of vine varieties" on the A list and classified. This variety is also listed in the catalogues of other Member States of the European Union: Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain.
Use
Wine grape variety.
Evolution of area under vines in France
1958 1968 1979 1988 1998 2008 2018
ha 16594 14199 9552 9054 10042 9777 10085
Description
The identification is based on:
- the tip of the young shoot with a very high density of prostate hairs,
- the young leaves with bronze spots,
- the adult leaves, with three or five lobes, a slightly open petiole sinus or with slightly overlapping lobes, medium teeth with convex sides, a strong anthocyanin coloration of veins, a blistered leaf blade, and on the lower side of the leaves, a medium density of prostate hairs,
- the ellipsoid berries.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 131 225 239 172 188 248 240 233 255
Allel 2 149 229 257 186 194 252 248 247 271
Phenology
Bud burst: 1 day before Chasselas.
Grape maturity: mid-season, 3 weeks to 3 weeks and a half after Chasselas.
Suitability for cultivation and agronomic production
Chenin is a vigorous and fertile variety whose production potential depends a lot on agronomic soil fertility where it is grown. It is susceptible to heat. Budburst is early. After a spring frost, the secondary buds demonstrate very low fertility.
Sensitivity to diseases and pests
Chenin is particularly susceptible to grey rot, powdery mildew and wood diseases. It resists better to downy mildew, black rot and to anthracnose.
Technological potential
The bunches are medium to large and the berries are small to medium in size. Depending on the growing conditions and the terroirs (limestone, schists) this variety can be used to produce sparkling wines, white wines, or liqueur wines. Acidity potential is high and the wines produced are elegant, generally quite lively, with aromas of honey.
Clonal selection in France
The thirteen certified Chenin clones carry the numbers 220, 278, 416, 417, 624, 880, 982, 1018, 1206, 1207, 1208, 1209 and 1286. More than 300 clones are planted in a conservatory in the wine-growing region of Anjou since 1996. An other conservatory-collection of fiften or so clones was planted in the French department of Aveyron in 1995.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages et de leurs synonymes. P. Galet, 2015, Ed. Libre&Solidaire, France.
- Traité général de viticulture, Ampélographie. P. Viala and V. Vermorel, 1901-1909, Ed. Masson, Paris, France.
Description of clones approved in France
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
220  Maine-et-Loire  ENTAV  medium  medium  high  
 1973  Val-de-Loire  medium    medium  
 6.01 ha    low to medium    refined, aromatic and powerful wines
Less compact grape clusters. Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced.
278  Maine-et-Loire  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium  
 1973  Val-de-Loire  medium      
 0.26 ha        balanced and highly distinctive wines
416  Maine-et-Loire  ENTAV  medium  high  low  
 1976  Val-de-Loire  high      
 0.53 ha  medium to high      distinctive wines of the vine variety
417  Maine-et-Loire  ENTAV  medium  high  low  
 1976  Val-de-Loire  high      
   medium to high      distinctive wines of the vine variety
624  Maine-et-Loire  ENTAV  medium to high  medium to high  medium  
 1979  Val-de-Loire  medium    low to medium  
 0.69 ha    medium to high    distinctive wines of the vine variety
Somewhat irregular production
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
880  Maine-et-Loire  ENTAV  low to medium  medium  high  
 1986  Val-de-Loire  medium to high      
 4.41 ha    low to medium    powerful, fatty and full-bodied wines
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced.
982  Maine-et-Loire  ENTAV  medium  medium  high  
 1992  Val-de-Loire  medium      
 2.00 ha        fatty and powerful dry wines
Early maturity clone, appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced.
1018  Maine-et-Loire  ENTAV  medium  medium  high  
 1994  Val-de-Loire  medium      
 1.72 ha    medium to high    well suited for the production of sweet wines
Early maturity clone, appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced
1206  Maine-et-Loire  INRA - IFV  high  medium  high  
 2014  Val-de-Loire  low    medium  
     low to medium  medium to high  good aptitude for the production of quality sweet wine
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of the wines obtained. Less compact grape clusters and less susceptible to gray rot
1207  Maine-et-Loire  INRA - IFV  medium  low  high  
 2014  Val-de-Loire  low    medium  
     medium  high  good aptitude for the production of quality sweet wine
Somewhat earlier clone, appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of the wines obtained.
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
1208  Maine-et-Loire  INRA - IFV  medium to high  medium  high  
 2014  Val-de-Loire  medium to low    medium  
     medium  high  good aptitude for the production of quality sweet wine
Somewhat earlier clone, appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of the wines obtained.
1209  Maine-et-Loire  INRA - IFV  low  medium  medium  
 2014  Val-de-Loire  medium to high    medium to high  
     medium  medium  Well suited for production of quality dry white wines
Later maturity clone with an average production level. Good results during the early years.
1286  Val-de-Loire  Pépinières Mercier - IFV        
 2018