Cabernet-Sauvignon N
Name of vine variety in France
Cabernet-Sauvignon
Origin
This vine variety is originally from the Bordeaux region. Based on published genetic studies, this variety comes from the crossbreeding of  Cabernet franc N and Sauvignon B
Synonymy
There is no officially recognized synonym in France nor in other countries in the European Union.
Regulations
In France, Cabernet-Sauvignon N is officially listed in the "Catalogue of vine varieties".This variety is likewise listed in the Catalogues of other European Union member states: Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Spain, Greece, Italy, Hungary, Malta, Portugal, Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia
Use
Wine vine variety
Evolution of area under vines in France
1958 1968 1979 1988 1998 2008 2016
ha 7841 11882 22992 36468 49393 60385 48439
Description
Identification signs include:
- young leaves are red with bronze patches,
- adult leaves are orbicular with 7 to 9 lobes, with a petiolar sinus that has slightly overlapping lobes and a base sometimes limited by a vein near the petiolar point, a flat base lateral sinus or U-shaped, medium to large length teeth with convex sides, a bubbled leaf blade and the underside has a sparse coat of flat-lying hairs,
- round-shaped berries.
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 137 229 239 172 188 248 238 233 239
Allel 2 149 238 239 186 194 248 248 235 239
Phenology
Bud burst: 13 days after Chasselas.
Grape maturity: period II, 3 to 3 and 1/2 weeks after Chasselas.
Suitability for cultivation and agronomic production
Cabernet-Sauvignon N has a late bud burst, is vigorous with large-diameter  vine shoots under fertile conditions with very long branches (elongated internodes) and lignified tendrils. It requires careful training and pruning, which can be long or short in southern areas, and is relatively slow. Large pruning wounds should be avoided. Removing wood, which is hard, likewise requires considerable time consuming work. Cabernet-Sauvignon N oftentimes produces better results on gravely and draining ground, rather acid and well-exposed. This variety sometimes suffers from black stem and this risk is increased by using certain rootstock such as S04.
Sensitivity to diseases and pests
Cabernet-Sauvignon N is less susceptible to grey rot. On the other hand, it is very suceptible to wood disease (eutypiosis, esca) and powdery mildew.
Technological potential
The grape clusters and berries are small. Cabernet-Sauvignon N makes wines with very interesting tannic structure with a sustained color when it has reached maturity. These wines are generally suitable for ageing and maturing in wood. This vine variety passes from vegetal aromas to much more pleasant and complex aromas once the wine has reached a proper maturity. On the other hand, when vinified alone as a single variety, Cabernet-Sauvignon N oftentimes lacks body and roundness.
Clonal selection in France
The twenty approved Cabernet-Sauvignon N clones carry the numbers 15, 169, 170, 191, 216, 217, 218, 219, 267, 269, 337, 338, 339, 341, 410, 411, 412, 685, 1124 and 1125. A collection-conservatory planted in the Bordeaux vineyards includes more than 250 clones derived from surveys carried out between 1966 and 1988.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi.
- Documentation interne du Domaine de Vassal. 1949-2011, INRA, Marseillan-plage.
- Cépages et vignobles de France, tome 2. P. Galet, 1990, Ed. Dehan, Montpellier.
- Ampélographie. P. Viala et V. Vermorel, 1902-1910, Ed. Masson, Paris.
Description of clones approved in France
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
15  Gironde  ENTAV  high  high  medium  medium
 1971  Bordelais
Languedoc
Provence, Sud-Ouest
 medium to high  medium  medium  medium
 39.07 ha  medium to high      balanced and structured wines
Clone appreciated in the south of France; good compromise between production level and harvest quality provided that the yield is managed and sufficient maturity ensured
169  Gironde  ENTAV  low to medium  medium  high  medium to high
 1972  Bordelais
Languedoc
Sud-Ouest
 low to medium    medium  medium to high
 46.38 ha  low to medium      balanced and well-structured wines with round tannins
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and its capacity for producing wines with good ageing potential.
170  Val-de-Loire  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium  medium
 1972  Bordelais
Languedoc, Provence
Val-de-Loire
 medium    medium  medium
 5.39 ha  medium      balanced and distinctive of the vine variety wines
Clone typical of the vine variety
191  Gironde  INRA  low to medium  low  high  high
 1973  Bordelais, Sud-Ouest
Languedoc, Provence
Val-de-Loire
 low  medium  medium  high
 14.04 ha  low to medium      colorful and well structured
Clone carrier of leaf roll virus2. Increasingly bronze budding and young leaves. Risk of blocking ripening if water stress is too great. Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and its capacity for producing wines with good ageing potential
216  Val-de-Loire  ENTAV  high  high  low to medium  
 1973  Languedoc, Provence
Val-de-Loire
 medium    medium  
 0.30 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
217  Val-de-Loire  ENTAV  medium  high  medium  
 1973  Languedoc, Provence
Val-de-Loire
 medium    medium  
 1.16 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
218  Gironde  ENTAV  medium to high  medium to high  medium  
 1973  Bordelais  medium      
         distinctive wines of the vine variety
219  Val-de-Loire  ENTAV  medium  medium  low to medium  
 1973  Languedoc
Val-de-Loire
 medium    medium  
 0.42 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
267  Gironde  ENTAV  medium to high  high  low to medium  
 1973  Val-de-Loire  medium to high    low to medium  
         distinctive wines of the vine variety
269  Gironde  ENTAV  high  high  medium  
 1973  Val-de-Loire  medium    medium  
         distinctive wines of the vine variety
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
337  Gironde  INRA  medium  medium  medium to high  medium to high
 1975  Bordelais  medium    medium  medium to high
 28.39 ha  medium      rich and structured wines
Clone carrier of leaf roll virus2. Slightly shorter plant cycle. Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and its capacity for producing wines with good ageing potential
338  Gironde  INRA  medium  medium  medium  medium to high
 1975  Bordelais
Languedoc
 medium to high    medium  medium to high
 9.68 ha  medium      balanced and distinctive of the vine variety wines
339  Gironde  INRA  high  high  low to medium  
 1975  Bordelais
Languedoc, Provence
 medium to high    medium  
 0.75 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
Clone carrier of leaf roll virus2. More vigorous appearance, dark green leaves
341  Gironde  INRA  low to medium  medium  high  medium to high
 1975  Bordelais  low    medium  medium to high
 8.25 ha  medium      balanced and structures wines
Clone carrier of leaf roll virus 2. Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and its capacity for producing wines with good ageing potentiel
410  Gironde  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium  
 1976  Bordelais  medium    medium  
         distinctive wines of the vine variety
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
411  Gironde  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium  
 1976  Bordelais  medium    medium  
         distinctive wines of the vine variety
412  Gironde  ENTAV  low to medium  low  high  medium to high
 1976  Bordelais
Languedoc, Provence
 low to medium    medium  medium to high
 0.59 ha  low to medium      balanced and structured wines
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and its capacity for producing wines with good ageing potential
685  Pyrénées-Atlantiques  ENTAV  high  high  medium  medium
 1980  Bordelais
Provence, Sud-Ouest
 high    medium  medium
 19.68 ha  medium      characteristic wines of the vine variety
More productive and more vigorous clone, slightly later maturity
1124  Gironde  CA 33 - IFV  medium  medium  medium to high  high
 2009  Bordelais  medium  medium to high  medium  high
   medium to high  medium    colourful and well structured wines
Clone derived from clone 191 disinfected by apex micrografting. Free of leafroll virus 2
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and its capacity for producing wines with good ageing potential
Greater vigor than clone 191
1125  Gironde  CA 33 - IFV  medium  medium  medium to high  high
 2009  Bordelais  medium  medium  medium  medium to high
   medium  medium    wines appreciated for their organoleptic quality, particularly with regard to balance, color and structure
Clone belonging to another clone 337 sanitary family. Free of leafroll virus 2
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and its capacity for producing wines with good ageing potential
Slightly earlier maturity