Cabernet franc N
Name of vine variety in France
Cabernet franc
Origin
Cabernet franc is probably originally from the south west of France.
Synonymy
There is no officially recognized synonym in France nor in the other countries of the European Union, for this variety.
Regulations
In France, Cabernet franc is officially listed in the "Catalogue of vine varieties" on the A list and classified. This variety is also listed in the catalogues of other Member States of the European Union: Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain.
Use
Wine grape variety.
Evolution of area under vines in France
1958 1968 1979 1988 1998 2008 2018
ha 9743 17864 22606 30256 35163 38691 32676
Description
The identification is based on:
- the greenish-red young leaves with bronze spots,
- the pentagonal adult leaves, with three or five lobes, lateral sinuses with often a tooth inside, a petiole sinus with slightly overlapping lobes, medium teeth with straight sides, a hammered, shiny leaf blade, and on the lower side of the leaves, a low density of prostate hairs,
- the round-shaped berries
Genetic profile
Microsatellite VVS2 VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VRZAG62 VRZAG79 VVMD25 VVMD28 VVMD32
Allel 1 137 223 239 178 194 248 238 227 239
Allel 2 145 238 262 186 204 260 254 235 257
Phenology
Bud burst: 5 days after Chasselas.
Grape maturity: mid-season, 2 weeks and a half to 3 weeks after Chasselas.
Suitability for cultivation and agronomic production
This fairly vigorous variety must be trained with moderately long pruning or short pruning in more favorable climatic zones. In terms of terroir, best results are generally achieved on clay-limestone soils, but good results may also be achieved with sandy soils in the absence of water stress.
Sensitivity to diseases and pests
Cabernet franc is moderately resistant to grey rot and is moderately sensitive to eutypa dieback and esca. It is susceptible to grape leafhoppers.
Technological potential
The bunches are medium in size and the berries are small. This variety is used to produce quality aromatic wines with average ageing potential. However, the 'sugar', 'acid' and 'polyphenol' (coloring intensity and tannic structure) potentials are moderate.
Clonal selection in France
The thirty certified Cabernet franc clones carry the numbers 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 326, 327, 332, 393, 394, 395, 396, 407, 408, 409, 542, 543, 544, 545, 622, 623, 678, 1155, 1156, 1158, 1166, 1167, 1203 and 1204. A conservatory of 100 clones was planted in 2001, in the wine-growing region of Anjou. Another conservatory of more than 100 clones was planted in the Bordeaux wine-growing region in 2003 and 2004 ; it is based on surveys conducted in Gironde and in the Pyrénées foothills.
Bibliographic references
- Catalogue des variétés et clones de vigne cultivés en France. Collectif, 2007, Ed. IFV, Le Grau-du-Roi, France.
- Documentary collections of the Centre de Ressources Biologiques de la Vigne de Vassal-Montpellier, INRAE - Montpellier SupAgro, Marseillan, France.
- Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages et de leurs synonymes. P. Galet, 2015, Ed. Libre&Solidaire, France.
- Traité général de viticulture, Ampélographie. P. Viala and V. Vermorel, 1901-1909, Ed. Masson, Paris, France.
Description of clones approved in France
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
210  Maine-et-Loire  ENTAV  medium to high  medium to high  medium  low
 1973  Val-de-Loire, Bordelais, Sud-Ouest  medium to high    medium  low
 1.06 ha  medium to high  medium to high    supple and fruity wines
Production level needs to be managed
211  Maine-et-Loire  ENTAV  medium to high  medium to high  medium  medium
 1973  Val-de-Loire, Sud-Ouest  medium    medium  low
 0.30 ha  high      distinctive wines of the vine variety
212  Maine-et-Loire  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium  medium
 1973  Val-de-Loire, Sud-Ouest  medium    medium  medium
 0.15 ha  medium      balanced and fruity wines
213  Val-de-Loire  ENTAV  medium to high  high  medium  
 1973  Val-de-Loire  high      
 0.16 ha        distinctive wines of the vine variety
214  Maine-et-Loire  ENTAV  low to medium  low  high  high
 1973  Val-de-Loire, Bordelais, Sud-Ouest  low to medium    medium  medium to high
 14.51 ha  low      aromatic, fine and structured wines
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and its capacity for producing wines with good ageing potential
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
215  Maine-et-Loire  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium  
 1973  Val-de-Loire  medium to high      
 2.02 ha  low      distinctive wines of the vine variety
326  Gironde  INRA  low  medium  high  medium to high
 1975  Bordelais  medium  medium  medium  medium to high
 4.15 ha  medium      rich and structured wines
Clone carrier of leaf roll virus 2. Appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and the quality of wine produced provided that the yield is moderate.
327  Gironde  INRA  low  medium  high  medium to high
 1975  Val-de-Loire, Bordelais, Sud-Ouest  medium  high  medium to high  medium to high
 11.25 ha  low      rich and structured wines
Slightly later phenological stages. Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and its capacity for producing wines with good ageing potential provided that the yield is moderate.
332  Pyrénées-Atlantiques  INRA  medium to high  high  low to medium  low
 1975  Bordelais, Val-de-Loire  medium to high    medium  low to medium
 1.69 ha  high      sometimes light wines
393  Pyrénées-Atlantiques  ENTAV  medium to high  medium  medium to high  medium
 1975  Bordelais, Sud-Ouest  medium    medium  high
 0.61 ha  low to medium      balanced and distinctive of the vine variety wines
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
394  Pyrénées-Atlantiques  ENTAV  low to medium  medium  medium to high  medium to high
 1975  Sud-Ouest  medium    medium  medium to high
 0.11 ha  medium      structured and colorful wines
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced
395  Pyrénées-Atlantiques  ENTAV  low  low  medium to high  high
 1975  Sud-Ouest  low to medium  high  medium  medium
 0.25 ha  medium to high      structured and colorful wines
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced
396  Pyrénées-Atlantiques  ENTAV  medium to high  medium  medium to high  medium to high
 1975  Sud-Ouest  medium    medium  medium to high
 1.10 ha  low to medium      balanced and distinctive of the vine variety wines
407  Gironde  ENTAV        
 1976          
         
Small distribution clone
408  Maine-et-Loire  ENTAV        
 1976          
         
Small distribution clone
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
409  Landes  ENTAV  medium to high  medium  medium  low to medium
 1976  Sud-Ouest  medium    medium  medium
 1.13 ha  medium      Colorful and balanced wines
Steady production clones
542  Landes  ENTAV  high  high  medium  
 1978  Languedoc, domaine de l'Espiguette  medium    medium  
   medium to high      
543  Landes  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium  
 1978  Languedoc, domaine de l'Espiguette  medium    medium  
   medium      
544  Landes  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium  
 1978  Languedoc, domaine de l'Espiguette  medium    medium  
   medium      
545  Landes  ENTAV  medium  medium to high  medium  
 1978  Languedoc, domaine de l'Espiguette  medium to high    medium  
   medium      
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
622  Pyrénées-Atlantiques  ENTAV  medium  high  low to medium  medium
 1978  Sud-Ouest  high    medium  medium
 0.52 ha  medium      distinctive wines of the vine variety
623  Gironde  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium to high  
 1979  Val-de-Loire  medium    medium  
 4.87 ha  medium      fruity, supple and well-balanced wines
Clone appreciated for its agronomic characteristics and quality of wines produced
678  Landes  ENTAV  medium  medium  medium to high  
 1979  Sud-Ouest  medium    medium  
 0.55 ha  medium      distinctive wines of the vine variety
Slightly earlier maturity
1155  Val-de-Loire  INRA - IFV  inférieure à moyenne  inférieur  supérieure  supérieur
 2018  Maine-et-Loire  inférieur    moyenne  
       supérieure  vins fins, colorés, ronds et bien équilibrés
Clone un peu plus précoce et peu productif. Clone apprécié pour son aptitude à l'élaboration de vins de garde.
1156  Gironde  CA33 - IFV  low  low  high  high
 2012  Bordelais  low    medium  medium to high
   low      Wines appreciated for their aromatic intensity and tannic structure
Lower production levels with less compact clusters. Clone appreciated for its ability to produce wines for aging.
Identity and availability Agronomic data Technical data
Clone number Origin Selection Fertility Production level Sugar content Potential color
Year approved Agronomic references Weight of grape clusters Vigor Total acidity Tannic structure
Growing surface area Size of berries Sensitivity to Botrytis Aromatic intensity Oenological aptitudes
New
1158  Gironde  CA33 - IFV  low  low  high  high
 2015  Bordelais  low    medium  medium to high
   low    medium to high  Wines appreciated for their aromatic intensity and tannic structure
Lower production levels with less compact clusters. Clone appreciated for its ability to produce wines for aging.
1166  Gironde  INRA - CA33 - IFV  low  low  high  high
 2011  Bordelais  low    medium to high  medium to high
   low      colorful and structured wines
Lower production level with less compact grape clusters. Clone appreciated for producing wines with good ageing potential.
1167  Gironde  INRA - CA33 - IFV  low  low  high  high
 2011  Bordelais  low to medium    medium to high  medium to high
   low      colorful and structured wines
Lower production level with less compact grape clusters. Clone appreciated for producing wines with good ageing potential.
1203  Maine-et-Loire  INRA - IFV  low to medium  medium  medium to high  high
 2014  Val-de-Loire  low    medium  
       high  colored wines, round and well-balanced
Less productive clone. Qualitatively higher than 214
1204  Maine-et-Loire  INRA - IFV  low to medium  low  high  high
 2014  Val-de-Loire  low    medium  
       high  colored wines, round and wel- balanced
Somewhat earlier and less productive clone. Qualitatively higher than 214